Born in 1629

Mar 29 Alexis of Russia the Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid-17th century. His reign saw the Russian invasion of Poland and war with Sweden during the Deluge, the Raskol schism in the Russian Orthodox Church, and the Cossack revolt of Stenka Razin. On the eve of his death in 1676, the Tsardom of Russia spanned almost 2,000,000,000 acres
Apr 1 Jean-Henri d'Anglebert a French composer, harpsichordist and organist. He was one of the foremost keyboard composers of his day
Apr 7 John of Austria the Younger a Spanish general and political figure. He was the only natural son of Philip IV of Spain to be acknowledged by the King and trained for military command and political administration. Don John advanced the causes of the Spanish Crown militarily and diplomatically at Naples, Sicily, Catalonia, the Netherlands, Portugal, Dunkirk and other fronts, and remained a popular hero even as the fortunes of Imperial Spain began to decline. In 1677 in a palace coup he took control of the monarchy of his half-brother Charles II of Spain, but he proved far from the savior Spain had hoped he would He remained in power until his death in 1679
Apr 14 Christiaan Huygens a prominent Dutch mathematician and scientist. He is known particularly as an astronomer, physicist, probabilist and horologist
Apr 23 Jan Commelin the son of Isaac Commelin a historian; his brother Casparus was a bookseller and newspaper publisher. Jan a botanist became a professor of botany when many plants were imported from the Cape and Ceylon and a new system had to be developed. As alderman of the city, together with burgomaster Johan Huydecoper van Maarsseveen he led the arrangement of the new botanic garden, Hortus Medicus later becoming Hortus Botanicus. He cultivated exotic plants on his farm 'Zuyderhout' near Haarlem. Commelin amassed a fortune by selling herbs and drugs to apothecaries and hospitals in Amsterdam and other Dutch cities
May 8 Niels Juel a Danish admiral. He was the brother of the diplomat Jens Juel
May 23 William VI Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1637 to 1663.
Jul 27 Princess Luisa Cristina of Savoy a Princess of Savoy by birth and the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy. She married her uncle Prince Maurice of Savoy but had no children. She was the owner of the future Villa della Regina. She was a first cousin of Louis XIV of France and Charles II of England
Aug 12 Archduchess Isabella Clara of Austria Not to be confused with Isabella Clara Eugenia, sovereign of the Netherlands.
Aug 17 John III Sobieski one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Sep 3 Cornelis Tromp a Dutch naval officer. He was the son of Lieutenant Admiral Maarten Tromp. He became Lieutenant Admiral General in the Dutch Navy and briefly Admiral General in the Danish Navy. He fought in the first three Anglo-Dutch Wars and in the Scanian War
Sep 21 Philip Howard (cardinal) Hon. Philip Howard was an English Roman Catholic cardinal. Born the third son of Henry Frederick Howard and his wife, Elizabeth Stuart , Howard was a member of the premier Catholic family in England. At the age of sixteen he joined the Dominican Order in Cremona, and was ordained in 1652. He founded the priory of Bornem in Flanders, with a college for English youths attached to it, and was himself the first prior and novice master. He also founded at Vilvoorde a convent of nuns of the Second Order of Saint Dominic, now at Carisbrooke on the Isle of Wight
Oct 11 Armand de Bourbon Prince of Conti a French nobleman, the younger son of Henri, Prince of Condé and brother of le Grand Condé and Anne Geneviève, Duchess of Longueville. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince du Sang
Oct 17 Balthasar Charles Prince of Asturias heir apparent to all the kingdoms, states and dominions of the Spanish monarchy until his death.
Oct 21 Adolph John I Count Palatine of Kleeburg Count Palatine of Kleeburg from 1654 until 1689 and was considered Prince of Sweden until 1660.
Oct 31 Charles II Duke of Mantua and Montferrat the son of Charles of Gonzaga-Nevers of Rethel, Nevers, Mantua and Montferrat, and Maria Gonzaga. He followed his grandfather Charles I, Duke of Mantua in 1637 as rulers of these lands, the first 10 years under regency of his mother Duchess Maria. Charles sold the Duchies of Nevers and Rethel in 1659 to Cardinal Jules Mazarin, the factual Regent of France, and they became part of France
Nov 20 Ernest Augustus Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg subdivision of the duchy. He was appointed prince-elector, but died before the appointment became effective. He was also Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück
Dec 2 William Egon of Fürstenberg a German clergyman who was bishop of Strasbourg.
Dec 20 Pieter de Hooch a Dutch Golden Age painter famous for his genre scenes of quiet domestic scenes with a few figures. He was a contemporary of Jan Vermeer, with whom his work shares themes and style