Born in 1632

Jan 8 Samuel von Pufendorf a German jurist, political philosopher, economist, statesman, and historian. His name was just Samuel Pufendorf until he was ennobled in 1684; he was made a Freiherr a few months before his death at age 62 in 1694. Among his achievements are his commentaries and revisions of the natural law theories of Thomas Hobbes and Hugo Grotius
Jan 11 Adam Frans van der Meulen a Flemish Baroque painter specialising in battle scenes. He was active first in Brussels, where he was a pupil of Pieter Snayers, and from the 1660s onwards in Paris
Jan 29 Johann Georg Graevius a German classical scholar and critic. He was born in Naumburg, in the Electorate of Saxony
Feb 18 Giovanni Battista Vitali an Italian composer and violone player.
Feb 20 Thomas Osborne 1st Duke of Leeds KG , English statesman , served in a variety of offices under Kings Charles II and William III of England.
Mar 27 Gustav Adolph Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken Count of Saarbrücken and Major General at the Rhine of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation.
Mar 30 John Proctor a farmer and tavern keeper in 17th-century Massachusetts. He was the son of John Proctor, and Martha Harper. During the Salem Witch Trials he was accused of witchcraft, convicted and hanged
Apr 6 Maria Leopoldine of Austria the second spouse of her first cousin, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III. As such, she was empress of the Holy Roman Empire. She died while giving birth to the couple's only child, Archduke Charles Joseph of Austria
May 3 Catherine of St. Augustine a French canoness regular who was instrumental in the development of the Hôtel-Dieu de Québec in service to the colony of New France. She has been beatified by the Catholic Church
May 8 Heino Heinrich Graf von Flemming a Saxon, later Brandenburger army leader and Field Marshal and Governor of Berlin.
May 15 Adolf William Duke of Saxe-Eisenach a duke of Saxe-Eisenach.
Jun 10 Esprit Fléchier a French preacher and author, Bishop of Nîmes from 1687 to 1710.
Jul 3 Tylman van Gameren a Dutch-born Polish architect and engineer who, at the age of 28, settled in Poland and worked for Queen Maria Kazimiera, wife of Poland's King John III Sobieski. Tylman left behind a lifelong legacy of buildings that are regarded as gems of Polish Baroque architecture
Aug 20 Louis Bourdaloue a French Jesuit and preacher.
Aug 29 John Locke an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence
Sep 14 Francis Hyacinth Duke of Savoy the Duke of Savoy from 1637 to 1638 under regency of his mother Marie Christine.
Oct 20 Pedro Antonio Fernández de Castro 10th Count of Lemos a Spanish nobleman who was Viceroy of Peru from 1667 until his death.
Oct 20 Christopher Wren one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history. He was accorded responsibility for rebuilding 52 churches in the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, including his masterpiece, Paul's Cathedral, on Ludgate Hill, completed in 1710
Oct 24 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek a Dutch tradesman and scientist. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist. He is best known for his work on the improvement of the microscope and for his contributions towards the establishment of microbiology
Oct 31 Johannes Vermeer a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. Vermeer was a moderately successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime. He seems never to have been particularly wealthy, leaving his wife and children in debt at his death, perhaps because he produced relatively few paintings
Nov 23 Jean Mabillon a French Benedictine monk and scholar, considered the founder of palaeography and diplomatics.
Nov 24 Baruch Spinoza a Dutch philosopher. The breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully realized until many years after his death. By laying the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, including modern conceptions of the self and, arguably, the universe, he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy. His magnum opus, the posthumous Ethics, in which he opposed Descartes's mind–body dualism, has earned him recognition as one of Western philosophy's most important thinkers. In the Ethics, "Spinoza wrote the last indisputable Latin masterpiece, and one in which the refined conceptions of medieval philosophy are finally turned against themselves and destroyed entirely." Philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel said of all contemporary philosophers, "You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all."
Nov 28 Jean-Baptiste Lully an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. He is considered the chief master of the French baroque style. Lully disavowed any Italian influence in French music of the period. He became a French subject in 1661
Dec 17 Anthony Wood an English antiquary.
Dec 31 Abbas II of Persia Shah of Persia from 1642 to 1666. He was the seventh Shah of the Safavid Dynasty