1638 in history

1638 events chronologically

Feb 28 The Scottish National Covenant is signed in Edinburgh
Mar 22 Anne Hutchinson is expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony for religious dissent
Mar 29 Swedish colonists establish the first European settlement in Delaware, naming it New Sweden
Apr 15 Tokugawa shogunate forces put down the Shimabara Rebellion when they retake Hara Castle from the rebels

Top 7 most famous people born in 1638

Jan 1 Nicolas Steno a Danish scientist, a pioneer in both anatomy and geology who became Catholic bishop in his later years. Steno was trained in the classical texts on science; however, by 1659 he seriously questioned accepted knowledge of the natural world. Importantly he questioned explanations for tear production, the idea that fossils grew in the ground and explanations of rock formation. His investigations and his subsequent conclusions on fossils and rock formation have led scholars to consider him one of the founders of modern stratigraphy and modern geology
Mar 15 Shunzhi Emperor the third emperor of the Qing dynasty and the first Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1644 to 1661. A committee of Manchu princes chose him to succeed his father, Hong Taiji , in September 1643, when he was five years old. The princes also appointed two co-regents: Dorgon , fourteenth son of Qing founder Nurhaci , and Jirgalang , one of Nurhaci's nephews, both of whom were members of the Qing imperial clan
Aug 6 Nicolas Malebranche Cong. Orat. , was a French Oratorian priest and rationalist philosopher. In his works, he sought to synthesize the thought of Augustine and Descartes, in order to demonstrate the active role of God in every aspect of the world. Malebranche is best known for his doctrines of Vision in God and Occasionalism
Sep 5 Louis XIV of France a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history
Sep 10 Maria Theresa of Spain Queen of France and Navarre as the first wife of King Louis XIV. Famed for her virtue and piety, she was only barely able to fulfill her duty as queen by producing a male heir to the throne, since five of her six children died in early childhood. She is frequently viewed as an object of pity in historical accounts of her husband's reign, since she had no choice but to tolerate his many illicit love affairs
Oct 31 Meindert Hobbema a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter.
Nov 25 Catherine of Braganza Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1662 to 1685, as the wife of King Charles Catherine was born into the House of Braganza, the most senior noble house of Portugal, which became Portugal's royal house after Catherine's father, John, 8th Duke of Braganza, was proclaimed King John IV after deposing the House of Habsburg in 1640.

Top 7 most famous people died in 1638

Feb 26 Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac a French mathematician, linguist, poet and classics scholar born in Bourg-en-Bresse, at that time belonging to Duchy of Savoy.
May 6 Cornelius Jansen Catholic bishop of Ypres and the father of a theological movement known as Jansenism.
Jun 27 Cyril Lucaris a Greek prelate and theologian, and a native of Candia, Crete. He later became the Greek Patriarch of Alexandria as Cyril III and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople as Cyril Lucaris strove for a reform of the Eastern Orthodox Church along Protestant and Calvinist lines. Attempts to bring Calvinism into the Orthodox Church were rejected, and Cyril's actions and motivations remain a matter of debate among the Orthodox
Aug 5 Peter Minuit a Walloon from Wesel, in present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, then part of the Duchy of Cleves. His surname means "midnight." He was Director of the Dutch colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1631, and founded the Swedish colony of New Sweden in 1638. He is generally credited with orchestrating the purchase of Manhattan Island for the Dutch from the Native Americans, which later became the city of New Amsterdam, modern-day New York City, which was the core of the Dutch colony of New Netherland and the later British colony of New York
Sep 14 John Harvard (clergyman) an English minister in America, "a godly gentleman and a lover of learning", whose deathbed bequest to the "schoale or Colledge" recently undertaken by the Massachusetts Bay Colony was so gratefully received that it was consequently ordered "that the Colledge agreed upon formerly to bee built at Cambridg shalbee called Harvard Colledge."‍.
Nov 9 Johann Heinrich Alsted a German Calvinist minister and academic, known for his varied interests: in Ramism and Lullism, pedagogy and encyclopedias, theology and millenarianism.
Dec 8 Ivan Gundulić the most prominent Croatian Baroque poet from the Republic of Ragusa. His work embodies central characteristics of Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation: religious fervor, insistence on "vanity of this world" and zeal in opposition to "infidels." Gundulić's major works—the epic poem Osman, the pastoral play Dubravka, and the religious poem Tears of the Prodigal Son are examples of Baroque stylistic richness and, frequently, rhetorical excess