Born in 1638

Jan 1 Nicolas Steno a Danish scientist, a pioneer in both anatomy and geology who became Catholic bishop in his later years. Steno was trained in the classical texts on science; however, by 1659 he seriously questioned accepted knowledge of the natural world. Importantly he questioned explanations for tear production, the idea that fossils grew in the ground and explanations of rock formation. His investigations and his subsequent conclusions on fossils and rock formation have led scholars to consider him one of the founders of modern stratigraphy and modern geology
Jan 1 Antoinette du Ligier de la Garde Deshoulières a French poet born in Paris. She was the daughter of Melchior du Ligier, sieur de la Garde, maitre d'hôtel to the queens Marie de Medici and Anne of Austria
Jan 1 Emperor Go-Sai the 111th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Jan 8 Elisabetta Sirani an Italian Baroque painter who died in still-unexplained circumstances at the early age of 27.
Jan 12 Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg military governor of Vienna from 1680, the city's defender during the Battle of Vienna in 1683, Imperial general during the Great Turkish War, and President of the Hofkriegsrat.
Jan 24 Charles Sackville 6th Earl of Dorset an English poet and courtier.
Feb 13 Frederick Duke of Mecklenburg-Grabow I of Mecklenburg-Grabow, Duke of Mecklenburg.
Feb 15 Zeb-un-Nisa an Imperial Princess of the Mughal Empire as the eldest child of Emperor Aurangzeb and his Empress consort Dilras Banu Begum. She was also a poet, who wrote under the pen name "Makhfi". Imprisoned by her father in the last 20 years of her life at Salimgarh Fort, Delhi, Princess Zeb-un-Nissa is remembered as a poet, and her writings were collected posthumously as Diwan-i-Makhfi
Mar 14 Johann Georg Gichtel a German mystic and religious leader who was a critic of Lutheranism. His followers ultimately separated from this faith
Mar 15 Shunzhi Emperor the third emperor of the Qing dynasty and the first Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1644 to 1661. A committee of Manchu princes chose him to succeed his father, Hong Taiji , in September 1643, when he was five years old. The princes also appointed two co-regents: Dorgon , fourteenth son of Qing founder Nurhaci , and Jirgalang , one of Nurhaci's nephews, both of whom were members of the Qing imperial clan
Mar 28 Frederik Ruysch a Dutch botanist and anatomist, remembered for his developments in anatomical preservation and the creation of dioramas or scenes incorporating human parts. Ruysch came to recognition with his proof of valves in the lymphatic system, the Vomeronasal organ in snakes, and arteria centralis oculi
May 9 Gregorio Vasquez de Arce y Ceballos a Colombian painter, including the Quitenian Miguel de Santiago, was one of the leading artist in the Latin American Baroque movement, which extended from the mid 17th to the late 18th century in the Viceroyalty of New Granada. Most of the artwork of Vázquez depicts the life of Christ, Virgin Mary, the Saints and scenes of the New Testament
May 13 Richard Simon (priest) a French priest and longtime Oratorian, who was an influential biblical critic, orientalist and controversialist.
Jun 8 Pierre Magnol a French botanist. He was born in the city of Montpellier, where he lived and worked for the biggest part of his life. He eventually became Professor of Botany and Director of the Royal Botanic Garden of Montpellier and even held a seat in the Académie Royale des Sciences de Paris for a short while. Magnol is of lasting importance because he was one of the innovators of the current botanical scheme of classification. He was the first to publish the concept of plant families as we know them, a natural classification, in which groups of plants with associated common features were described
Jul 10 David Teniers III a Flemish painter who was born in Antwerp, the son of David Teniers the Younger.
Jul 11 Olympia Mancini Countess of Soissons the second eldest of the five celebrated Mancini sisters, who along with two of their female Martinozzi cousins, were known at the court of King Louis XIV of France as the Mazarinettes because their uncle was Louis XIV's chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin. Olympia was later to become the mother of the famous Austrian general Prince Eugene of Savoy. She also involved herself in various court intrigues including the notorious Poison Affair, which led to her expulsion from France
Jul 15 Giovanni Buonaventura Viviani an Italian composer and violinist. He worked in the court at Innsbruck as a violinist at least between 1656 and 1660. Between 1672 to 1676 he was director of the court music at Innsbruck, which, after the extinction of the Tyrolean Habsburgs, had come under the control of the emperor. Although in publications of 1678 Viviani still described himself as holding this position, it seems more likely that he was in fact in Venice working on his arrangement of Francesco Cavalli’s Scipione affricano and his own opera Astiage, which were both performed in Venice that year. Also that year, Viviani directed an oratorio at the Oratorio di San Marcello in Rome with Arcangelo Corelli and Bernardo Pasquini. He was probably elevated to the nobility in the same year, since he subsequently designated himself ‘Nobile del Sacro Romano Imperio’. Between 1678 and 1679 and 1681 and 1682 he was in Naples as director of a troupe of opera singers, and while he was there he performed some of his own operas and oratorios. In 1686 he was maestro di cappella to the Prince of Bisignano. From January 1687 to December 1692 he was maestro di cappella of Pistoia Cathedral
Jul 20 Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve conventionally named the "Gyldenløve War" after him. He was an acknowledged illegitimate son of King Frederick III of Denmark and Norway
Jul 22 Theodor Kerckring a Dutch anatomist and chemical physician.
Aug 3 William Louis Prince of Anhalt-Köthen a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Köthen.
Aug 6 Nicolas Malebranche Cong. Orat. , was a French Oratorian priest and rationalist philosopher. In his works, he sought to synthesize the thought of Augustine and Descartes, in order to demonstrate the active role of God in every aspect of the world. Malebranche is best known for his doctrines of Vision in God and Occasionalism
Sep 5 Louis XIV of France a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history
Sep 10 Maria Theresa of Spain Queen of France and Navarre as the first wife of King Louis XIV. Famed for her virtue and piety, she was only barely able to fulfill her duty as queen by producing a male heir to the throne, since five of her six children died in early childhood. She is frequently viewed as an object of pity in historical accounts of her husband's reign, since she had no choice but to tolerate his many illicit love affairs
Sep 21 Philippe de Courcillon a French officer and author.
Oct 14 Bernhard II Duke of Saxe-Jena duke of Saxe-Jena.
Oct 31 Meindert Hobbema a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter.
Nov 25 Catherine of Braganza Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1662 to 1685, as the wife of King Charles Catherine was born into the House of Braganza, the most senior noble house of Portugal, which became Portugal's royal house after Catherine's father, John, 8th Duke of Braganza, was proclaimed King John IV after deposing the House of Habsburg in 1640.
Dec 17 Anna Sophia II Abbess of Quedlinburg a German noblewoman who reigned as Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg under the name Anna Sophia II.
Dec 24 Ralph Montagu 1st Duke of Montagu an English courtier and diplomat.
Dec 25 Michel Bégon (1638–1710) a French ancien regime official. He was intendant de la marine at the port of Rochefort and intendant of the généralité of La Rochelle, as well as a passionate plant collector