Died in 1638

Jan 21 Ignazio Donati an Italian composer of the early Baroque era. He was one of the pioneers of the style of the concertato motet
Jan 27 Gonzalo de Céspedes y Meneses a Spanish novelist.
Feb 26 Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac a French mathematician, linguist, poet and classics scholar born in Bourg-en-Bresse, at that time belonging to Duchy of Savoy.
Mar 6 Paulus Moreelse a Dutch painter, mainly of portraits.
Mar 23 Georg Flegel a German painter, best known for his still life works.
Mar 28 Marie Touchet the only mistress of Charles IX of France.
Apr 7 Shimazu Tadatsune a tozama daimyo of Satsuma, the first to hold it as a formal fief under the Tokugawa shogunate, and the first Japanese to rule over the Ryūkyū Kingdom. As lord of Satsuma, he was among the most powerful lords in Japan at the time, and formally submitted to Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1602, to prove his loyalty, being rewarded as a result with the name Matsudaira Iehisa; Matsudaira being a branch family of the Tokugawa, and "Ie" of "Iehisa" being taken from "Ieyasu", this was a great honor. As of 1603, his holdings amounted to 605,000 koku
Apr 13 Henri Duke of Rohan a French soldier, writer and leader of the Huguenots.
May 6 Cornelius Jansen Catholic bishop of Ypres and the father of a theological movement known as Jansenism.
May 9 Frederick I Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg the first Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg and founder of the eponymous family line.
Jun 25 Juan Pérez de Montalbán a Spanish Catholic priest, dramatist, poet and novelist.
Jun 27 Cyril Lucaris a Greek prelate and theologian, and a native of Candia, Crete. He later became the Greek Patriarch of Alexandria as Cyril III and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople as Cyril Lucaris strove for a reform of the Eastern Orthodox Church along Protestant and Calvinist lines. Attempts to bring Calvinism into the Orthodox Church were rejected, and Cyril's actions and motivations remain a matter of debate among the Orthodox
Aug 1 Joachim Wtewael a Dutch Mannerist painter and draughtsman. Wtewael was equally part of the Flemish school of the sixteenth century and the Dutch School of the early seventeenth
Aug 5 Peter Minuit a Walloon from Wesel, in present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, then part of the Duchy of Cleves. His surname means "midnight." He was Director of the Dutch colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1631, and founded the Swedish colony of New Sweden in 1638. He is generally credited with orchestrating the purchase of Manhattan Island for the Dutch from the Native Americans, which later became the city of New Amsterdam, modern-day New York City, which was the core of the Dutch colony of New Netherland and the later British colony of New York
Aug 12 Johannes Althusius a German jurist and Calvinist political philosopher.
Aug 26 Bayram Pasha an Ottoman grand vizier from 1637 to 1638 and the Ottoman governor of Egypt from 1626 to 1628.
Sep 14 John Harvard (clergyman) an English minister in America, "a godly gentleman and a lover of learning", whose deathbed bequest to the "schoale or Colledge" recently undertaken by the Massachusetts Bay Colony was so gratefully received that it was consequently ordered "that the Colledge agreed upon formerly to bee built at Cambridg shalbee called Harvard Colledge."‍.
Oct 4 Francis Hyacinth Duke of Savoy the Duke of Savoy from 1637 to 1638 under regency of his mother Marie Christine.
Oct 14 Gabriello Chiabrera an Italian poet, sometimes called the Italian Pindar.
Oct 21 Willem Blaeu Janszoon Blaeu , also abbreviated to Willem Jansz. Blaeu, was a Dutch cartographer, atlas maker and publisher
Oct 23 John Ernest Duke of Saxe-Eisenach a duke of Saxe-Eisenach and later of Saxe-Coburg.
Nov 9 Johann Heinrich Alsted a German Calvinist minister and academic, known for his varied interests: in Ramism and Lullism, pedagogy and encyclopedias, theology and millenarianism.
Nov 11 Cornelis van Haarlem one of the leading Northern Mannerist artists in The Netherlands, and an important forerunner of Frans Hals as a portraitist.
Dec 8 Ivan Gundulić the most prominent Croatian Baroque poet from the Republic of Ragusa. His work embodies central characteristics of Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation: religious fervor, insistence on "vanity of this world" and zeal in opposition to "infidels." Gundulić's major works—the epic poem Osman, the pastoral play Dubravka, and the religious poem Tears of the Prodigal Son are examples of Baroque stylistic richness and, frequently, rhetorical excess
Dec 13 Catherine of Sweden Countess Palatine of Kleeburg a Swedish princess and a Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken as the consort of her second cousin John Casimir of Palatinate-Zweibrücken. She is known as the periodical foster-mother of Queen Christina of Sweden
Dec 17 François Leclerc du Tremblay a French Capuchin friar, confidant and agent of Cardinal Richelieu. He was the original éminence grise—the French term for a powerful advisor or decision-maker who operates secretly or unofficially
Dec 23 Barbara Longhi an Italian painter. She was much admired in her lifetime as a portraitist, although most of her portraits are now lost or unattributed. Her work, such as her many Madonna and Child paintings, earned her a fine reputation as an artist
Dec 24 Tayyar Mehmed Pasha an Ottoman grand vizier. His epithet Tayyar means "flying", referring to his speed in military operations