Born in 1640

Jan 5 Paolo Lorenzani an Italian composer of the Baroque Era. While living in France, he helped promote appreciation for the Italian style of music
Jan 8 Elisabeth Dorothea of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg a German princess and a member of the House of Wettin in the Ernestine branch of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. By marriage she was Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt and Landgravine-Regent from 1678 to 1688
Jan 17 Jonathan Singletary Dunham a prominent early American settler of Woodbridge Township, New Jersey, who built the first gristmill in New Jersey. He is U.S. President Barack Obama’s eighth great-grandfather and the first of Obama’s Dunham ancestors to be born in North America
Jan 25 William Cavendish 1st Duke of Devonshire an English soldier and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1661 to 1684 when he inherited his father's peerage as Earl of Devonshire. He was created Duke of Devonshire in 1694
Mar 9 Jacques d'Agar a French portrait painter born in Paris. He was a scholar of Ferdinand Voet, and began life as an historical painter, but he soon abandoned history for portraiture, in which branch of art he became very successful. His son Charles d'Agar also became a portrait painter. In 1675 he was admitted into the Academy, and he became also painter in ordinary to the king and his court. Upon the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Agar, as a Protestant, was shut out from the Academy. He accordingly left France in 1682—never to return
Mar 18 Philippe de La Hire a French mathematician and astronomer. According to Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle he was an "academy unto himself"
Mar 30 John Trenchard (politician) an English politician.
May 31 Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from September 29, 1669, to his death in 1673. Michael's reign was marked by struggles between the pro-Habsburg and pro-French political factions
Jun 5 Pu Songling a Qing Dynasty Chinese writer, best known as the author of Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio.
Jun 9 Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Jun 15 Bernard Lamy a French Oratorian mathematician and theologian.
Jun 16 Jacques Ozanam a French mathematician.
Jun 21 Abraham Mignon a Dutch golden age painter, specialized in flower bouquets.
Jul 16 Ivan Romanov a son of Nikita Romanovich Zakharyin from his second wife, a junior half-brother of Feodor Nikitich Romanov and an uncle of the first Tsar from the Romanov dynasty, Mikhail Fedorovich.
Aug 2 Gérard Audran a French engraver of the Audran family, the third son of Claude Audran.
Aug 8 Amalia Catharina a German poet and composer. She was born in Arolsen to Count Philipp Theodor von Waldeck and the Countess of Nassau. In 1664 she married Count Georg Ludwig von Erbach. She published a number of Pietist poems and songs in Hildburghausen in 1692. They were meant for private household devotion. There were 67 poems, some of which had simple melodies and a figured bass
Sep 21 Philippe I Duke of Orléans the youngest son of Louis XIII of France and his wife, Anne of Austria. His older brother was Louis XIV, le roi soleil. Styled Duke of Anjou from birth, Philippe became Duke of Orléans upon the death of his uncle Gaston in 1660. In 1661, Philippe also received the dukedoms of Valois and Chartres. Following Philippe's victory in battle in 1671, Louis XIV added the dukedom of Nemours, the marquisates of Coucy and Folembray, and the countships of Dourdan and Romorantin. During the reign of his brother he was known simply as Monsieur, the traditional style at the court of France for the younger brother of the king
Sep 29 Antoine Coysevox born at Lyon, and belonged to a family which had emigrated from Spain. The name should be pronounced quazevo
Oct 5 Isaiah Kopinsky a Ukrainian Orthodox metropolitan.
Oct 5 Françoise-Athénaïs marquise de Montespan the most celebrated maîtresse en titre of King Louis XIV of France, by whom she had seven children.
Oct 20 Gérard Edelinck a copper-plate engraver and print publisher of Flemish origin, who worked in Paris from 1666 and became a naturalized French citizen in 1675.
Oct 20 Pieter Cornelisz van Slingelandt known as one of Leiden's fijnschilders.
Nov 4 Carlo Mannelli an Italian violinist, castrato and composer.
Nov 27 Barbara Palmer 1st Duchess of Cleveland an English courtesan from the Villiers family and perhaps the most notorious of the many mistresses of King Charles II of England, by whom she had five children, all of whom were acknowledged and subsequently ennobled. Her influence was so great that she has been referred to as "The Uncrowned Queen." Her immediate contemporary was Madame de Montespan, mistress of King Louis XIV of France
Nov 28 Willem de Vlamingh a Dutch sea-captain who explored the central west coast of Australia in the late 17th century.
Dec 6 Claude Fleury a French ecclesiastical historian.
Dec 13 Robert Plot an English naturalist, first Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford, and the first keeper of the Ashmolean Museum.