Born in 1642

Jan 2 Mehmed IV the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. Taking the throne at age six, his reign was significant as he changed the nature of the Sultan's position forever by giving up most of his executive power to his Grand Vizier
Jan 3 Diego Morcillo Rubio de Auñón a Spanish bishop in Peru and twice viceroy of the colony, from August 15, 1716 to October 5, 1716 and from January 26, 1720 to May 14, 1724.
Jan 3 Hans Wachtmeister admiral general of the Swedish Navy and advisor to King Charles XI of Sweden and King Charles XII of Sweden. He served in the Scanian War of 1675–1679 and during the following twenty years of peace worked to build up the Swedish Navy. When the Great Northern War began in 1700 he was able to take his fleet to sea in good condition
Jan 11 Johann Friedrich Alberti a German composer and organist.
Feb 18 Marie Champmeslé a French actress.
Mar 4 Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirski a Polish noble, politician, patron of the arts and writer.
Apr 15 Suleiman II the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691.
Apr 21 Simon de la Loubère a French diplomat, writer, mathematician and poet.
Apr 30 Christian Weise a German writer, dramatist, poet, pedagogue and librarian of the Baroque era. He produced a large number of dramatic works, noted for their social criticism and idiomatic style. In the 1670s he started a fashion for German "political novels". He has also been credited with the invention of the mathematical Euler diagram, though this is uncertain
Jun 18 Paul Tallement the Younger a French churchman and scholar.
Jun 20 George Hickes an English divine and scholar.
Jul 25 Louis I Prince of Monaco Prince of Monaco from 1662 until 1701.
Aug 14 Cosimo III de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany the penultimate Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany. He reigned from 1670 to 1723, and was the elder son of Grand Duke Ferdinando Cosimo's 53-year-long reign, the longest in Tuscan history, was marked by a series of ultra-reactionary laws which regulated prostitution and banned May celebrations. His reign also witnessed Tuscany's deterioration to previously unknown economic lows. He was succeeded by his elder surviving son, Gian Gastone, when he died, in 1723
Sep 1 Angelo Paoli an Italian Carmelite, known as "the father of the poor".
Sep 23 Giovanni Maria Bononcini an Italian violinist and composer, the father of a musical dynasty.
Oct 25 Zheng Jing a 17th-century Chinese warlord and Ming Dynasty loyalist. He was the eldest son of Koxinga and a grandson of the pirate-merchant Zheng Zhilong. After the conquest of Taiwan in 1662 by his father, Zheng Jing controlled the military forces in Xiamen and Quemoy on his father's behalf. Upon the death of his father six months later, Zheng Jing contested throne as the King of Taiwan with his uncle, Zheng Shixi. The dispute was resolved in Zheng Jing's favor after he successfully landed an army in Taiwan despite strong opposition by the forces of his uncle. This was followed by Zheng Shixi withdrawing his claim
Nov 11 André Charles Boulle generally considered to be the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry, even "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers." His fame in marquetry led to his name being given to the fashion he perfected of inlaying brass and tortoiseshell, known as Boulle.
Nov 24 Anne Hilarion de Tourville a French naval commander who served under King Louis XIV. He was made Marshal of France in 1693
Nov 30 Andrea Pozzo an Italian Jesuit Brother, Baroque painter and architect, decorator, stage designer, and art theoretician.
Dec 6 Johann Christoph Bach a German composer and organist of the Baroque period. He was born at Arnstadt, the son of Heinrich Bach, Johann Sebastian Bach's great uncle, hence he was Johann Sebastian's first cousin once removed. He was also the uncle of Maria Barbara Bach, J.S. Bach's first wife. He is not to be confused with Johann Sebastian Bach's son, Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach
Dec 17 Francisco Castillo Fajardo Marquis of Villadarias a Spanish general.
Dec 25 Isaac Newton English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher
Dec 30 Vincenzo da Filicaja an Italian poet.