Born in 1644

Jan 10 Louis François duc de Boufflers a Marshal of France.
Feb 12 Jakob Ammann an Anabaptist leader and namesake of the Amish religious movement.
Mar 1 Simon Foucher a French polemic philosopher. His philosophical standpoint was one of Academic skepticism: he did not agree with dogmatism, but didn't resort to Pyrrhonism, either
Mar 25 Heinrich von Cocceji a German jurist from Bremen. He studied in Leiden and Oxford and was appointed professor of law at Heidelberg and in Utrecht. Named Geheimrat and marquis, he became ordinary professor in the faculty of law at Frankfurt , where he later died
Mar 31 Henry Winstanley an English painter and engineer who constructed the first Eddystone lighthouse.
Apr 7 François de Neufville duc de Villeroy a French soldier.
Apr 11 Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours born a Princess of Savoy and was later the Duchess of Savoy. Married by proxy to Charles of Lorraine in 1662, Lorraine soon refused to recognise the union. Despite this, she married Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy in 1665 who was her second cousin once removed. The mother of the future Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia who saw the elevation of the House of Savoy to kings, she styled herself as Madama Reale or Madame Royale and acted as Regent of Savoy from 1675 in the name of her son Victor Amadeus II who was his successor. Her regency officially ended in 1680 but she maintained power for four years until her son banished her from further influence in the state. She left a considerable architectural legacy in Turin and was responsible for the remodelling of the Palazzo Madama which was her private residence. At the time of her death she was the mother of the King of Sardinia as well as great grandmother of the King of Spain and King of France
May 1 Jean Jouvenet a French painter, especially of religious subjects.
Jun 16 Henrietta of England the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France. Fleeing England with her governess at the age of three, she moved to the court of her first cousin Louis XIV of France, where she was known as Minette. After she married Philippe of France, brother of King Louis XIV, known as Monsieur at court, she became known as Madame. Very popular with the court, her marriage was marked by frequent tensions. Henrietta was instrumental in negotiating the Secret Treaty of Dover prior to her unexpected death in June 1670. Jacobite claims to the throne of Great Britain following the death of Henry Benedict Stuart descend from her through her daughter Anne Marie, Queen of Sardinia
Aug 6 Louise de La Vallière a mistress of Louis XIV of France from 1661 to 1667. She later became the Duchess of La Vallière and Duchess of Vaujours in her own right. Unlike her rival, Madame de Montespan, she has no surviving descendants. Louise was also very religious and she led a religious penance for herself near the end of her life
Aug 6 Christian Ernst Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Aug 12 Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber a Bohemian-Austrian composer and violinist. Born in the small Bohemian town of Wartenberg , Biber worked at Graz and Kroměříž before he illegally left his Kremsier employer and settled in Salzburg. He remained there for the rest of his life, publishing much of his music but apparently seldom, if ever, giving concert tours
Aug 28 Gilles Schey a Dutch admiral.
Sep 6 Juan Bautista Cabanilles a Spanish organist and composer at Valencia Cathedral. He is considered by many to have been the greatest Spanish Baroque composer, and has been called the Spanish Bach
Sep 25 Ole Rømer a Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light. In scientific literature alternative spellings such as "Roemer", "Römer", or "Romer" are common
Oct 2 François-Timoléon de Choisy a French author.
Oct 14 William Penn an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Indians. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was planned and developed
Dec 29 Philips van Almonde a Dutch Lieutenant Admiral, who served in his nation’s maritime conflicts of the 17th and early 18th centuries.