Died in 1650

Jan 7 Louis I Prince of Anhalt-Köthen a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the unified principality of Anhalt. From 1603, he was ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Köthen. He was also a founder of the first German Society
Jan 17 Tommaso Dolabella a Baroque painter from Venice, who settled in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at the royal court of King Sigismund III Vasa. Active in Kraków, where his huge canvas paintings were displayed in Gothic churches of Kraków and Kazimierz. Only a few of them have survived in the Dominican and Corpus Christi churches. He was later supported by Sigismund's son, Władysław IV Waza. In Warsaw he opened a workshop for artists
Feb 11 René Descartes a French philosopher, mathematician and writer who spent most of his life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the father of modern philosophy, and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes' influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system — allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two-dimensional coordinate system — was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, crucial to the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the scientific revolution and has been described as an example of genius. He refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers, and refused to trust his own senses. Descartes frequently sets his views apart from those of his predecessors. In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, a treatise on the early modern version of what are now commonly called emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on these matters before". Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural philosophy, he differs from the schools on two major points: First, he rejects the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejects any appeal to final ends—divine or natural—in explaining natural phenomena. In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation
Mar 16 Sophie Elisabeth of Brandenburg a Princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg.
Mar 17 Carl Gyllenhielm a Swedish soldier and politician. He was made a baron in 1615, appointed Field Marshal in 1616, Privy Councilor in 1617, Governor General of Ingria in 1617 and served as Lord High Admiral from 1620 until his death
Mar 25 Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg a princess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg.
Mar 29 Cornelis Galle the Elder born at Antwerp in 1576, and was taught engraving by his father. He followed the example of his brother Theodoor in visiting Rome, where he resided for several years and acquired a correctness of design and a freedom of execution in which he greatly surpassed both his father and his brother. After engraving several plates at Rome, he returned to Antwerp, where he carried on the business of a printseller and engraved many plates after the works of his countrymen and his own designs. He became a master of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1610. One of his pupils was Giovanni Florimi of Siena
Apr 18 Simonds d'Ewes an antiquary and politician. He was bred for the bar, was a member of the Long Parliament and left notes on its transactions. d'Ewes took the Puritan side in the Civil War. His Journal of all the Parliaments of Elizabeth is of value; he left an Autobiography and Correspondence
May 20 Francesco Sacrati an Italian composer of the Baroque era, who played an important role in the early history of opera. He wrote for the Teatro Novissimo in Venice as well as touring his operas throughout Italy. His most famous piece is La finta pazza , said to be the first opera ever performed in France. The manuscript of this work was long thought to be lost but a touring edition of the manuscript was discovered by musicologist Lorenzo Bianconi in 1984. Some of the music bears striking similarities to the score of Monteverdi's L'incoronazione di Poppea, prompting scholars to speculate that Sacrati had a part in composing the surviving version of that opera. The United States premiere of La finta pazza, and first performance outside Europe, occurred in April 2010 at Yale University
May 21 James Graham 1st Marquess of Montrose a Scottish nobleman, poet and soldier, who initially joined the Covenanters in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, but subsequently supported King Charles I as the English Civil War developed. From 1644 to 1646, and again in 1650, he fought a civil war in Scotland on behalf of the King and is generally referred to in Scotland as simply "the Great Montrose"
Jun 5 Tokugawa Yoshinao a Japanese daimyo of the early Edo period.
Jun 19 Matthäus Merian a Swiss-born engraver who worked in Frankfurt for most of his career, where he also ran a publishing house. He was a member of the patrician Basel Merian family
Jul 2 Marion Delorme a French courtesan known for her relationships with the important men of her time.
Jul 18 Christoph Scheiner a Jesuit priest, physicist and astronomer in Ingolstadt.
Aug 6 John Parkinson (botanist) the last of the great English herbalists and one of the first of the great English botanists. He was apothecary to James I and a founding member of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries in December 1617, and was later Royal Botanist to Charles He is known for two monumental works, Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris , which generally describes the proper cultivation of plants; and Theatrum Botanicum , the most complete and beautifully presented English treatise on plants of its time. One of the most eminent gardeners of his day, he kept a botanical garden at Long Acre in Covent Garden, today close to Trafalgar Square, and maintained close relations with other important English and Continental botanists, herbalists and plantsmen
Aug 9 Jerzy Ossoliński a Polish nobleman , Crown Court Treasurer from 1632, governor of Sandomierz from 1636, Reichsfürst since 1634, Crown Deputy Chancellor from 1639, Great Crown Chancellor from 1643, sheriff of Bydgoszcz , Lubomel , Puck and Bolim , magnate, politician and diplomat. Famous for being extensively educated, he was a skillful politician and a persuasive public speaker
Sep 8 Elizabeth Stuart (1635–1650) the second daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France. From the age of six until her early death at the age of fourteen she was a prisoner of Parliament during the English Civil War. Her emotional written account of her final meeting with her father on the eve of his execution and his final words to his children have been published in numerous histories about the war and King Charles I
Sep 13 Ferdinand of Bavaria (bishop) Prince-elector archbishop of the Archbishopric of Cologne from 1612 to 1650 as successor of Ernest of Bavaria. He was also prince-bishop of Hildesheim, Liège, Münster, and Paderborn
Sep 24 Charles de Valois Duke of Angoulême the Duke of Angoulême and the illegitimate son of Charles IX of France and Marie Touchet; born at the Château de Fayet in Dauphiné. His father, dying in the following year, commended him to the care and favour of his younger brother and successor, Henry III, who faithfully fulfilled the charge. His mother married François de Balzac, marquis d'Entragues, and one of her daughters, Henriette, marquise de Verneuil, afterwards became the mistress of Henry IV
Oct 25 Franciscus Quaresmius an Italian writer and Orientalist.
Oct 29 David Calderwood a Scottish divine and historian.
Nov 6 William II Prince of Orange sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later. His only child, also named William, would go on to reign as William III of England and Ireland, as well as William II in Scotland
Nov 13 Thomas May an English poet, dramatist and historian of the Renaissance era.
Nov 20 Jan Mikołaj Daniłowicz a Polish-Lithuanian noble and politician. Crown Podstoli from 1620, Crown Court Treasurer from 1627, and from 1632, Grand Crown Treasurer
Nov 24 Manuel Cardoso a Portuguese composer and organist. With Duarte Lobo and John IV of Portugal, he represented the "golden age" of Portuguese polyphony
Dec 2 Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency an heiress of one of France's leading ducal families, and Princess of Condé by her marriage to Henry de Bourbon. She almost became a mistress of Henry IV of France, but her husband escaped with her after the wedding, and did not return to France until after King Henry's death
Dec 28 Bartol Kašić Jesuit clergyman and grammarian during the Counter-Reformation, who wrote the first Croatian grammar and translated the Bible and the Roman Rite into Croatian.
Dec 31 Dorgon a Manchu prince and regent of the early Qing Dynasty.