Died in 1654

Jan 10 Nicholas Culpeper an English botanist, herbalist, physician, and astrologer. His published books include The English Physician and the Complete Herbal , which contain a rich store of pharmaceutical and herbal knowledge, and Astrological Judgement of Diseases from the Decumbiture of the Sick , which is one of the most detailed documents we have on the practice of medical astrology in Early Modern Europe
Jan 13 Jacques Lemercier a French architect and engineer, one of the influential trio that included Louis Le Vau and François Mansart who formed the classicizing French Baroque manner, drawing from French traditions of the previous century and current Roman practice the fresh, essentially French synthesis associated with Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIII.
Jan 17 Paulus Potter a Dutch painter who specialized in animals within landscapes, usually with a low vantage point.
Jan 23 Thomas Willeboirts Bosschaert a Dutch-born Flemish Baroque painter.
Feb 18 Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac a French author, best known for his epistolary essays, which were widely circulated and read in his day. He was one of the founding members of Académie française
Mar 1 Antonio de la Calancha a pioneering anthropologist studying the South American natives and a senior Augustinian monk.
Mar 7 Ernest Gottlieb Prince of Anhalt-Plötzkau a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Plötzkau.
Mar 9 Pedro de Toledo 1st Marquis of Mancera a Spanish nobleman general, colonial administrator, and diplomat who served as Viceroy of Galicia and Peru from December 18, 1639 to September 20, 1648.
Mar 24 Samuel Scheidt a German composer, organist and teacher of the early Baroque era.
Mar 30 Aleksander Ludwik Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian noble.
Apr 5 Lorenzo Garbieri an Italian painter of the early-Baroque period, active mainly in Bologna. He was one of the painters in the studio of Ludovico Carracci and is sometimes called il nipote dei Carracci. He painted the Plague of Milan in the chapel of San Carlo at the church of the Barnabites. He painted Paul resuscitating a youth for the church of the Philippines in Fano. he painted the Martyrdom of Felicita and her seven sons for San Maurizio in Mantua
Apr 9 Matei Basarab a Wallachian Voivode between 1632 and 1654.
May 21 Elizabeth Poole an English settler in Plymouth Colony who founded the town of Taunton, Massachusetts. She was the first woman known to have founded a town in the Americas. Poole was a well-born woman from Shute in East Devon, near Axminster. She was the daughter of Sir William Pole, who was knighted by James I in 1601, and Mary Peryam, the daughter of Sir William Peryam, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. Until 2009, her family's descendants, the Pole-Carews, lived in the Devonshire house she was born in, Shute Barton a National Trust property which is open to the public on four weekends during the year
Jun 10 Alessandro Algardi an Italian high-Baroque sculptor active almost exclusively in Rome, where for the latter decades of his life, he was, along with Francesco Borromini and Pietro da Cortona, one of the major rivals of Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
Jun 27 Johannes Valentinus Andreae a.k.a. Johannes Valentinus Andreä or Johann Valentin Andreae, was a German theologian, who claimed to be the author of the Chymische Hochzeit Christiani Rosencreutz anno 1459 , one of the three founding works of Rosicrucianism
Jul 9 Ferdinand IV King of the Romans born in Vienna, the eldest son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, and his first wife, María Ana of Spain. He was made King of Bohemia in 1646 and King of Hungary in 1647, the latter coronation taking place on June 16 in Pressburg. He was elected King of the Romans, that is, heir to the Holy Roman Empire, on 31 May 1653, and crowned at Ratisbon on 18 June of the same year. He died of smallpox in Vienna, predeceasing his father and leaving his younger brother, Leopold, as heir apparent
Aug 12 Cornelius Haga the first ambassador of the Dutch Republic to the Ottoman Empire.
Aug 19 Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller a Bohemian rabbi and Talmudist, best known for writing a commentary on the Mishnah called the Tosafot Yom-Tov. Heller was one of the major Talmudic scholars in Prague and in Poland during the "Golden Age" before 1648
Aug 28 Axel Oxenstierna a Swedish statesman. He became a member of the Swedish Privy Council in 1609 and served as Lord High Chancellor of Sweden from 1612 until his death. He was a confidant of first Gustavus Adolphus and then Queen Christina
Sep 8 Peter Claver a Spanish Jesuit priest and missionary born in Verdú who, due to his life and work, became the patron saint of slaves, the Republic of Colombia and ministry to African Americans. During the 40 years of his ministry in Colombia it is estimated he personally baptized around 300,000 people. He is also patron saint for seafarers
Sep 27 Louis Duke of Joyeuse a younger son of Charles, Duke of Guise and Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse.
Oct 12 Carel Fabritius Pietersz. Fabritius was a Dutch painter. He was a pupil of Rembrandt and worked in his studio in Amsterdam. Fabritius, who was a member of the Delft School, developed his own artistic style and experimented with perspective and lighting. Among his works are A View of Delft , The Goldfinch , and The Sentry
Oct 16 Hercule Duke of Montbazon a member of the princely House of Rohan. The second Duke of Montbazon, he is an ancestor of the present Princes of Guéméné. His daughter was the famous Frondeur the duchesse de Chevreuse. He was a Peer of France
Oct 30 Emperor Go-Kōmyō the 110th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Nov 30 John Selden an English jurist and a scholar of England's ancient laws and constitution and scholar of Jewish law. He was known as a polymath showing true intellectual depth and breadth; John Milton hailed Selden in 1644 as "the chief of learned men reputed in this land."
Dec 5 Jean François Sarrazin a French writer.
Dec 21 Nikita Romanov a son of Ivan Romanov and a cousin of Tsar Michael. He was the last Romanov of an unroyal line