Born in 1655

Jan 1 Christian Thomasius a German jurist and philosopher.
Jan 6 Jacob Bernoulli one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He was an early proponent of Leibnizian calculus and had sided with Leibniz during the Leibniz–Newton calculus controversy. He is known for his numerous contributions to calculus, and along with his brother Johann, was one of the founders of the calculus of variations. However, his most important contribution was in the field of probability, where he derived the first version of the law of large numbers in his work Ars Conjectandi
Jan 6 Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg Holy Roman Empress as the spouse of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. Through her marriage, she was also Queen of Bohemia and Hungary, German Queen, and Archduchess of Austria. She served as Interim Regent in 1711. She was the paternal grandmother of Empress Maria Theresa
Jan 13 Bernard de Montfaucon a French Benedictine monk, and a scholar who founded the discipline of palaeography, as well as being an editor of works of the Fathers of the Church. He is also regarded to be one of the founders of modern archaeology
Jan 25 Cornelius Anckarstjerna a Swedish admiral of Dutch origin and a member of the Swedish House of Nobility.
Jan 27 Henri de Nesmond a French churchman, bishop of Montauban, archbishop of Albi and archbishop of Toulouse.
Feb 7 Jean-François Regnard equally famous now for the travel diary he kept of a voyage in 1681.
Feb 15 August Duke of Saxe-Merseburg-Zörbig a German prince and member of the House of Wettin.
Feb 25 Carel de Moor a Dutch Golden Age etcher and painter. He was a pupil of Gerard Dou
Feb 28 Johann Beer an Austrian author, court official and composer.
Mar 4 Fra Galgario an Italian painter, mainly active in Bergamo as a portraitist during the Rococo or late-Baroque period.
Apr 8 Louis William Margrave of Baden-Baden the ruler of Baden in Germany and chief commander of the Imperial army. He was also known as Türkenlouis , for his many defeats of Turkish armies. At his death in 1707, his wife, Sibylle of Saxe-Lauenburg, acted as regent of Baden-Baden
Apr 26 Rinaldo d'Este (1655–1737) Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1695 until his death. He was succeeded by his son
May 4 Bartolomeo Cristofori an Italian maker of musical instruments, generally regarded as the inventor of the piano.
May 13 Pope Innocent XIII born as Michelangelo dei Conti and was Pope from 8 May 1721 to his death in 1724. He is the last pope to date to take the pontifical name of "Innocent" upon his election
Jun 12 Ernest Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen a duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
Sep 10 Caspar Bartholin the Younger a Danish anatomist who first described the "Bartholin's gland" in the 17th century.
Sep 12 Sébastien de Brossard a French music theorist, composer and collector.
Nov 1 Ferdinand Kettler Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1730 to 1737. Ferdinand was the son of Jacob Kettler and Louise Charlotte of Brandenburg. Married in 1730 to Johanna Magdalene of Saxe-Weissenfels
Nov 24 Charles XI of Sweden King of Sweden from 1660 until his death, in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish empire.
Dec 14 Philip Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal the son of William VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and Hedwig Sophia of Brandenburg. He was the first landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal from 1663 to 1721 and the founder of the fifth branch of the house of Hesse
Dec 23 Franz Lefort a Russian military figure of Swiss origin, general admiral , and close associate of Peter the Great.
Dec 28 Charles Cornwallis 3rd Baron Cornwallis a British politician who served as First Lord of the Admiralty. He succeeded his father as Baron Cornwallis in 1673. On December 27th of that year, at Westminster Abbey, he married Elizabeth Fox , daughter of Sir Stephen Fox. Their son Charles succeeded him as 4th Baron Cornwallis. After Elizabeth's death, he married Anne Scott, 1st Duchess of Buccleuch, widow of James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth