Born in 1657

Jan 17 Pieter van Bloemen a Flemish painter known for his Italianizing landscapes, and his compositions depicting equestrian, animal and market scenes.
Jan 26 William Wake a priest in the Church of England and Archbishop of Canterbury from 1716 until his death in 1737.
Feb 11 Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle a French author. Isaiah Berlin said Fontenelle "was the most civilized man of his time, and indeed of most times." In 1935, the lunar crater Fontenelle was named after him
Feb 13 Miles Sindercombe the leader of a group that tried to assassinate Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell during the period of the Protectorate in 1657.
Mar 1 Samuel Werenfels a Swiss theologian. He was a major figure in the move towards a "reasonable orthodoxy" in Swiss Reformed theology
Mar 18 Giuseppe Ottavio Pitoni an organist and composer from Perugia, Italy. He became one of the leading musicians in Rome during the late Baroque era, the first half of the 18th century
Mar 24 Arai Hakuseki a Confucianist, scholar-bureaucrat, academic, administrator, writer and politician in Japan during the middle of the Edo Period, who advised the Shogun Tokugawa Ienobu. His personal name was Kinmi or Kimiyoshi. Hakuseki was his pen name. His father was a Kururi han samurai Arai Masazumi
Apr 13 Sylvester Kossov an Eastern Orthodox Church metropolitan and writer. He served as metropolitan of Kiev during the Khmelnytsky uprising. His official title was Metropolitan of Kiev, Galychyna and All-Rus'
May 8 Martino Altomonte an Italian Baroque painter of Austrian descent who mainly worked in Poland and Austria.
May 14 Sambhaji the eldest son of Chhatrapati Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire, and his first wife Saibai. He was successor of the realm after his father's death. Sambhaji's rule was largely shaped by the ongoing wars between the Maratha kingdom and the Mughal Empire, as well as other neighbouring powers such as the Siddis, Mysore and the Portuguese in Goa. Sambhaji was captured, tortured, and executed by the Mughals, and succeeded by his brother Rajaram
Jun 10 James Craggs the Elder an English politician and the father of James Craggs the Younger.
Jul 11 Frederick I of Prussia Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia in personal union. The latter function he upgraded to royalty, becoming the first King in Prussia. From 1707 he was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel. He was also the paternal grandfather of Frederick the Great
Jul 12 Friedrich Wilhelm III Duke of Saxe-Altenburg a duke of Saxe-Altenburg.
Jul 25 Philipp Heinrich Erlebach a German Baroque composer.
Aug 18 Ferdinando Galli-Bibiena an Italian Baroque-era architect, designer, and painter.
Sep 25 Imre Thököly a Hungarian noble, leader of an anti-Habsburg uprising, Prince of Transylvania, and vassal king of Upper Hungary.
Sep 27 Sophia Alekseyevna of Russia regent of Russia from 1682 to 1689. She allied herself with a singularly capable courtier and politician, Prince Vasily Galitzine, to install herself during the minority of her brother Ivan V and half-brother Peter Her regency was carried out with a firm and heavy fist. She did not hesitate to use violent tactics to promote her agenda. The activity of this "bogatyr-tsarevna" was all the more extraordinary, as upper-class Muscovite women, confined to the upper-floor terem and veiled and guarded in public, invariably were kept aloof from any open involvement in politics
Sep 29 Heinrich of Saxe-Weissenfels Count of Barby a German prince of the House of Wettin and count of Barby.
Oct 4 Francesco Solimena a prolific Italian painter of the Baroque era, one of an established family of painters and draughtsmen.
Oct 26 Philipp Duke of Saxe-Merseburg-Lauchstädt a German prince. He was a member of the House of Wettin
Nov 26 William Derham an English clergyman and natural philosopher. He produced the earliest, reasonably accurate estimate of the speed of sound
Nov 28 Philip Prospero Prince of Asturias the first son of Philip IV of Spain and Mariana of Austria to survive infancy. Philip IV had no male heir since the death of Balthasar Charles, his son by his first wife, Elisabeth of France, eleven years before, and the issue of succession, as Spain's strength continued to ebb, had become a matter of fervent and anxious prayer
Dec 15 Michel Richard Delalande a French Baroque composer and organist who was in the service of King Louis XIV. He was one of the most important composers of grands motets. He also wrote orchestral suites known as Simphonies pour les Soupers du Roy and ballets. His works foreshadowed the cantatas of JS Bach and the Water Music and oratorios of Handel
Dec 21 Catherine Sedley Countess of Dorchester the mistress of King James II and VII both before and after he came to the thrones. Catherine was not noted for beauty but was famous for her wittiness and sharp tongue