Died in 1657

Jan 24 Claude Duke of Chevreuse a French noble and husband of Marie de Rohan. He was the Duke of Chevreuse, a title which is today used by the Duke of Luynes
Feb 8 Laura Mancini a niece of Cardinal Mazarin. She was the eldest of the five famous Mancini sisters, who along with two of their female Martinozzi cousins, were known at the court of Louis XIV of France as the Mazarinettes. She married Louis de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, grandson of King Henry IV and was the mother of the great general the Duke of Vendôme
Feb 10 Sebastian Stoskopff an Alsatian painter. He is considered one of the most important German still life painters of his time. His works, which were rediscovered after 1930, portray goblets, cups and especially glasses. The reduction to a few objects, which is characteristic of early still life painting, can again be recognized in Stoskopff's painting. His chief works hang in Strasbourg and in Saarbrücken
Feb 19 Evert van Aelst a Dutch still life painter.
Mar 7 Hayashi Razan a Japanese Neo-Confucian philosopher, serving as a tutor and an advisor to the first four shoguns of the Tokugawa bakufu. He is also attributed with first listing the Three Views of Japan. Razan was the founder of the Hayashi clan of Confucian scholars
Mar 7 Balthasar van der Ast considered to be a pioneer in the genre of shell painting. His still lifes often contain insects and lizards. He was born in Middelburg and died at Delft
Mar 17 Johann Baptist Cysat named. Born in Lucerne, the eighth of 14 children, his father, Renward Cysat , had been active since 1575 in Lucerne as Kanzler and had published the first printed European book concerning Japan, called Von den Japanischen Inseln und Königreichen
Mar 26 Jacob van Eyck a Dutch nobleman and musician. He was one of the best-known musicians in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century as a carillon player, expert in bell casting and tuning, organist, recorder virtuoso, and composer. He taught the Hemony brothers how to tune a carillon
Apr 2 Jean-Jacques Olier a French Catholic priest and the founder of the Sulpicians. He helped to establish the Société Notre-Dame de Montréal, which organized the settlement of the colony of New France, now eastern Canada
Apr 2 Ferdinand III Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.
Apr 29 Jacques Stella a French painter.
May 7 Nabeshima Katsushige a Japanese daimyo of the early Edo period. Born to Nabeshima Naoshige, he became lord of Saga-han
May 10 Gustav Horn Count of Pori a Swedish/Finnish soldier and politician. He was the youngest son of Field Marshal Carl Horn and Agneta von Dellwig, born while his father was imprisoned in Örbyhus Castle, after the defeat against the Russians
May 16 Andrew Bobola a Polish missionary and martyr of the Society of Jesus, known as the Apostle of Lithuania and the "hunter of souls".
Jun 3 William Harvey an English physician. He was the first known to describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart, though earlier writers had provided precursors of the theory. After his death the William Harvey Hospital was constructed in the town of Ashford, several miles from his birthplace of Folkestone
Jun 21 Jan Antonisz. van Ravesteyn a successful painter to the Dutch court in The Hague.
Aug 6 Bohdan Khmelnytsky the Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He led an uprising against the Commonwealth and its magnates which resulted in the creation of a Cossack state. In 1654, he concluded the Treaty of Pereyaslav with the Tsardom of Russia
Aug 7 Robert Blake (admiral) one of the most important military commanders of the Commonwealth of England and one of the most famous English admirals of the 17th century, whose successes have "never been excelled, not even by Nelson" according to one biographer. Blake is recognised as the chief founder of England's naval supremacy, a dominance subsequently inherited by the British Royal Navy into the early 20th century. Despite this, due to deliberate attempts to expunge the Parliamentarians from history following the Restoration, Blake's achievements tend not to receive the full recognition that they deserve
Aug 14 Giovanni Paolo Lascaris an Italian nobleman and Grand Master of the Knights of Malta.
Aug 19 Frans Snyders a Flemish painter of animals and still lifes.
Aug 29 John Lilburne an English political Leveller before, during and after the English Civil Wars 1642–1650. He coined the term "freeborn rights", defining them as rights with which every human being is born, as opposed to rights bestowed by government or human law. In his early life he was a Puritan, though towards the end of his life he became a Quaker. His works have been cited in opinions by the United States Supreme Court
Sep 7 Arvid Wittenberg or Arvid Wirtenberg von Debern , Swedish count, field marshal and privy councillor. Born in Porvoo, Finland, died in prison in Zamość, Poland, 7 September 1657. Arvid Wittenberg preferred call himself by the original Wittenberg family name, which was Wirtenberg von Debern
Sep 13 Jacob van Campen a Dutch artist and architect of the Golden Age.
Sep 23 Joachim Jungius a German mathematician, logician and philosopher of sciences.
Sep 27 Olimpia Maidalchini the sister-in-law of Pope Innocent She rose to prominence as one of the most powerful women in Rome of her era and influenced foreign and domestic papal policy as well as several papal conclaves.
Oct 3 Bartholomeus Breenbergh a Dutch Golden Age painter of Italian and Italianate landscapes, in Rome and Amsterdam.
Oct 9 Bernabé Cobo a Spanish Jesuit missionary and writer. He played a part in the early history of quinine by his description of cinchona bark; he brought some to Europe on a visit in 1632
Oct 22 Cassiano dal Pozzo an Italian scholar and patron of arts. The secretary of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, he was an antiquary in the classicizing circle of Rome, and a long-term friend and patron of Nicolas Poussin, whom he supported from his earliest arrival in Rome: Poussin in a letter declared that he was "a disciple of the house and the museum of cavaliere dal Pozzo." A doctor with interests in the proto-science of alchemy, a correspondent of major figures like Galileo, a collector of books and master drawings, dal Pozzo was a node in the network of European scientific figures
Nov 7 Mario Bettinus an Italian Jesuit philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. The lunar crater Bettinus was named after him by Giovanni Riccioli in 1651. His Apiaria Universae Philosophiae Mathematicae is an encyclopedic collection of mathematical curiosities. This work had been reviewed by Christoph Grienberger