Born in 1658

Jan 9 Nicolas Coustou a French sculptor and academic.
Feb 18 Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre a French author whose ideas were novel for his times. His proposal of an international organisation to maintain peace was perhaps the first in history, with the possible exception of George of Poděbrady's Tractatus. He influenced Rousseau and Kant
Apr 11 James Hamilton 4th Duke of Hamilton a Scottish nobleman, the Premier Peer of Scotland and Keeper of the Palace of Holyroodhouse. He was a Master of the Great Wardrobe, Master-General of the Ordnance, Ambassador, and Colonel-in-Chief of his regiment. Hamilton was a major investor in the failed Darien Scheme, which cost many of Scotland's ruling class their fortunes, and he played a leading role in the events leading up to the Act of Union in 1707. He died on 15 November 1712 as the result of a duel in Hyde Park, Westminster, with Charles Mohun, 4th Baron Mohun, over a disputed inheritance
Apr 19 Johann Wilhelm Elector Palatine Elector Palatine , Duke Palatine of Neuburg/Danube , Duke of Jülich and Berg , and Duke of Upper Palatinate and Cham. From 1697 onwards Johann Wilhelm was also Count of Megen
Apr 22 Giuseppe Torelli an Italian violist, violinist, teacher, and composer.
Jun 1 Martyn Pushkar a polkovnyk of Poltava's Cossack regiment known for his loyalty to Muscovy. Together with Iakiv Barabash Pushkar led a pro-Muscovy uprising against Ukrainian hetman Ivan Vyhovsky in 1657. After inflicting several defeats on Vyhovsky's Cossacks and his Polish allies, Martyn Pushkar was killed in a battle near his native Poltava on 1 June 1658. His rebellion ended in failure. He founded Exaltation of the Cross Monastery built in a Cossack Baroque style in Poltava, to commemorate a victory over the Poles
Jun 22 Louis VII Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt a Hessian regent.
Jun 30 Onufriy Stepanov a Siberian Cossack and explorer of the Amur River. For background see Russian–Manchu border conflicts
Jul 10 Luigi Ferdinando Marsili an Italian soldier and naturalist.
Jul 17 Diogo de Mendonça Corte-Real an accomplished Portuguese diplomat and statesman, and Secretary of State to King Peter II and John V.
Jul 25 Archibald Campbell 1st Duke of Argyll a Scottish peer.
Aug 5 Claude Audran III a French painter.
Aug 22 John Ernest IV Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
Sep 16 John Dennis (dramatist) an English critic and dramatist.
Sep 30 Elisabeth Eleonore of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel the eldest daughter of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and his wife Juliane of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg.
Oct 2 Nicholas Roosevelt (1658–1742) an early member of the Roosevelt family and a prominent Dutch-American citizen of New Amsterdam , and was the 4th great-grand father to Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He was the first Roosevelt to hold an elected office in North America, as an alderman
Oct 5 Mary of Modena Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland as the second wife of James II and VII. A devout Catholic, Mary married the widowed James, who was the younger brother and heir presumptive of Charles II,. She was uninterested in politics and devoted to James and their children, two of whom survived to adulthood: the Jacobite claimant to the thrones, James Francis Edward, , and Louisa Maria Teresa
Oct 11 Christian Heinrich Postel a German jurist, epic poet and opera librettist, who wrote 28 libretti for the Oper am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg, set by composers such as Johann Philipp Förtsch, Reinhard Keiser and Georg Philipp Telemann. His texts for a St John Passion were set by composers Christian Ritter, Johann Mattheson and Johann Sebastian Bach in his St John Passion
Oct 19 Adolphus Frederick II Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz the first Duke of the Mecklenburg-Strelitz, reigning from 1701 until his death. Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a part of the Holy Roman Empire
Oct 21 Henri de Boulainvilliers a French nobleman, writer and historian. Educated at the college of Juilly, he served in the army until 1697
Nov 4 Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani a Georgian writer.
Nov 27 Tsarevna Catherine Alekseyevna of Russia the fifth daughter of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, sister of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half-sister of Tsar Peter the Great.
Nov 27 Tsarevna Yevdokia Alekseyevna of Russia the eldest daughter of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, sister of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half-sister of Tsar Peter the Great.