Died in 1658

Jan 7 Theophilus Eaton a merchant, farmer, and Puritan colonial leader who was the co-founder and first governor of New Haven Colony, Connecticut.
Jan 13 Edward Sexby an English Puritan soldier and Leveller in the army of Oliver Cromwell. Later he turned against Cromwell and plotted his assassination
Feb 27 Adolf Frederick I Duke of Mecklenburg the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from his father's death in 1592 until 1628 and again from 1631 to 1658. Between 1634 and 1648 Adolf Frederick also ruled the Prince-Bishopric of Schwerin as its administrator
Mar 6 Ivan Bunić Vučić a Croatian politician and poet from the Republic of Ragusa.
Apr 7 Juan Eusebio Nieremberg a Spanish Jesuit and mystic.
Apr 19 Kirsten Munk a Danish noble, the second spouse of King Christian IV of Denmark, and mother to twelve of his children.
Apr 19 Robert Rich 2nd Earl of Warwick an English colonial administrator, admiral, and Puritan.
Apr 29 John Cleveland an English poet.
Jul 18 Álvaro Semedo a Portuguese Jesuit missionary in China.
Sep 3 Oliver Cromwell an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Sep 17 Kaspar von Barth a German philologist and writer.
Sep 17 Georg Philipp Harsdorffer a Baroque-period German poet and translator.
Sep 26 Francisco de Borja y Aragón a Spanish writer, official in the court of King Philip III of Spain, and, from December 18, 1615 to December 31, 1621, viceroy of Peru.
Oct 14 Francesco I d'Este Duke of Modena Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1629 until his death. The eldest son of Alfonso III d'Este, he became reigning duke after his father's abdication
Nov 4 Antoine Le Maistre a French Jansenist lawyer, author and translator. His name has also been written as Lemaistre and Le Maître, and he sometimes used the pseudonym of Lamy
Nov 6 Pieter de Bloot a Dutch painter.
Nov 8 Witte Corneliszoon de With a famous Dutch naval officer of the 17th century.
Nov 29 Margrave Charles Magnus of Baden-Durlach a titular Margrave of Baden.
Dec 6 Baltasar Gracián a Spanish Jesuit and baroque prose writer and philosopher. He was born in Belmonte, near Calatayud. His proto-existentialist writings were lauded by Nietzsche and Schopenhauer