1665 in history

1665 events chronologically

Mar 4 English King Charles II declares war on the Netherlands marking the start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War
Jun 3 James Stuart, Duke of York (later to become King James II of England), defeats the Dutch fleet off the coast of Lowestoft
Jun 12 England installs a municipal government in New York City (the former Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam)
Oct 5 The University of Kiel is founded
Oct 29 Battle of Ambuila, in which Portuguese forces defeat the forces of the Kingdom of Kongo and decapitated king António I of Kongo, also called Nvita a Nkanga
Nov 7 The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published
Dec 10 The Royal Netherlands Marine Corps is founded by Michiel de Ruyter

Top 7 most famous people born in 1665

Feb 6 Anne Queen of Great Britain became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state, the United Kingdom of Great Britain. She continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death
Feb 12 Rudolf Jakob Camerarius a German botanist and physician.
Mar 14 Giuseppe Crespi an Italian late Baroque painter of the Bolognese School. His eclectic output includes religious paintings and portraits, but he is now most famous for his genre paintings
Mar 17 Élisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre a French musician, harpsichordist and composer.
Apr 29 James Butler 2nd Duke of Ormonde an Irish statesman and soldier. He was the third of the Kilcash branch of the family to inherit the earldom of Ormond. Like his grandfather the 1st Duke, he was raised as a Protestant, unlike his extended family who held to Roman Catholicism. He served in the campaign to put down the Monmouth Rebellion, in the Williamite War in Ireland, in the Nine Years' War and in the War of the Spanish Succession but was accused of treason and went into exile after the Jacobite rising of 1715
May 12 Albertus Seba a Dutch pharmacist, zoologist and collector.
Sep 14 Jean-Baptiste Colbert marquis de Torcy a French diplomat, who negotiated some of the most important treaties towards the end of Louis XIV's reign, notably the treaty that occasioned the War of the Spanish Succession , in which the dying Charles II of Spain named Louis XIV's grandson, Philippe, duc d'Anjou, heir to the Spanish throne, eventually founding the line of Spanish Bourbons.

Top 7 most famous people died in 1665

Jan 12 Pierre de Fermat given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality. In particular, he is recognized for his discovery of an original method of finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines, which is analogous to that of the differential calculus, then unknown, and his research into number theory. He made notable contributions to analytic geometry, probability, and optics. He is best known for Fermat's Last Theorem, which he described in a note at the margin of a copy of Diophantus' Arithmetica
Feb 16 Stefan Czarniecki a Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth general and nobleman. In his career he rose from a petty nobleman to a magnate holding one of the highest offices in the Commonwealth, something that was unprecedented in the Commonwealth history. On 22 July 1664 he received the office of the voivode of Kiev and on 2 January 1665, a few weeks before his death, he was given the office of Field Hetman of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom. He is remembered as an accomplished military commander, and regarded as a Polish national hero. His status in Polish history is acknowledged by a mention of his name in the Polish national anthem
May 24 María de Ágreda a Catholic Franciscan nun and author known for reports of bilocation between Spain and New Mexico and West Texas in the 17th century. In religious life, she was known as Sor María de Jesús de Ágreda. Popular culture since the 17th century has also dubbed her as the Lady in Blue and the Blue Nun. She wrote a series of books about the life of Blessed Virgin Mary
May 31 Pieter Jansz. Saenredam Saenredam was a painter of the Dutch Golden Age, known for his distinctive paintings of whitewashed church interiors
Sep 17 Philip IV of Spain King of Spain and Portugal as Philip III. He ascended the thrones in 1621 and reigned in Spain until his death and in Portugal until 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velázquez, and his rule over Spain during the challenging period of the Thirty Years' War
Sep 25 Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1610–1665) Electress of Bavaria as the spouse of Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria. She also served as Regent of Bavaria during the minority of her son
Nov 19 Nicolas Poussin the leading painter of the classical French Baroque style, although he spent most of his working life in Rome. His work is characterized by clarity, logic, and order, and favors line over color. Until the 20th century he remained a major inspiration for such classically oriented artists as Jacques-Louis David, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Paul Cézanne