Born in 1666

Jan 17 Antonio Maria Valsalva an Italian anatomist born in Imola. His research focused on the anatomy of the ears. He coined the term Eustachian tube and he described the aortic sinuses of Valsalva in his writings, published posthumously in 1740. His name is associated with the Valsalva antrum of the ear and the Valsalva maneuver, which is used as a test of circulatory function. Anatomical structures bearing his name are Valsalva’s muscle and taeniae Valsalvae
Feb 9 George Hamilton 1st Earl of Orkney a British soldier and Scottish nobleman and the first British Army officer to be promoted to the rank of field marshal. After commanding a regiment for the cause of William of Orange during the Williamite War in Ireland, he commanded a regiment in the Low Countries during the Nine Years' War. He then led the final assault at the Battle of Blenheim attacking the village churchyard with eight battalions of men and then receiving the surrender of its French defenders during the War of the Spanish Succession. He also led the charge of fifteen infantry battalions in an extremely bloody assault on the French entrenchments at the Battle of Malplaquet. In later life he became a Lord of the Bedchamber to George I and was installed as Governor of Edinburgh Castle
Mar 15 George Bähr a German architect.
Mar 21 Ogyū Sorai a Japanese Confucian philosopher. He has been described as the most influential such scholar during the Tokugawa period. His primary area of study was in applying the teachings of Confucianism to government and social order. He responded to contemporary economic and political failings in Japan, as well as the culture of mercantilism and the dominance of old institutions that had become weak with extravagance. Sorai rejected the moralism of Song Confucianism and instead looked to the ancient works. He argued that allowing emotions to be expressed was important and nurtured Chinese literature in Japan for this reason. Sorai attracted a large following with his teachings and created the Sorai school, which would become an influential force in further Confucian scholarship in Japan
Apr 12 Pierre Le Gros the Younger a French sculptor, active almost exclusively in Baroque Rome. Nowadays, his name is commonly written Legros, while he himself always signed as Le Gros; he is frequently referred to either as 'the Younger' or 'Pierre II' to distinguish him from his father, Pierre Le Gros the Elder, who was also a sculptor. The "ardent drama" of his work and its Italian location make him more an Italian, than a French, sculptor. Despite being virtually unknown to the general public today, he was the pre-eminent sculptor in Rome for nearly two decades, until he was finally superseded at the end of his life by the more classicizing Camillo Rusconi
Apr 18 Jean-Féry Rebel an innovative French Baroque composer and violinist.
Apr 25 Johann Heinrich Buttstett a German Baroque organist and composer. Although he was Johann Pachelbel's most important pupil and one of the last major exponents of the south German organ tradition, Buttstett is best remembered for a dispute with Johann Mattheson
May 14 Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia Duke of Savoy from 1675 to 1730. He also held the titles of marquis of Saluzzo, duke of Montferrat, prince of Piedmont, count of Aosta, Moriana and Nizza. Louis XIV organised his marriage in order to maintain French influence in the Duchy but Victor Amadeus soon broke away from the influence of France. At his father's death in 1675, his mother took over a regency in the name of her nine-year-old son and would remain in de facto power till 1684 when Victor Amadeus banished her further involvement in the state. Having fought in the War of the Spanish Succession, he became king of Sicily in 1713 but he was forced to exchange this title and instead became king of Sardinia to which his direct descendants claim as part of the Kingdom of Italy. Victor Amadeus left a considerable cultural influence in Turin remodeling the Royal Palace of Turin, Palace of Venaria, Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi as well as building the Basilica of Superga where he rests
Jul 10 John Ernest Grabe born at Königsberg, where his father, Martin Sylvester Grabe, was professor of theology and history.
Aug 6 Maria Sophia of Neuburg queen of Portugal as the wife of King Peter II from 1687 until her death in 1699. A popular queen, she was noted for her extraordinary generosity and for being the mother of the famously extravagant John V of Portugal
Aug 12 Odoardo Farnese Hereditary Prince of Parma the son and heir of Duke Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza. He was the Hereditary Prince of Parma from his birth till his death. He was the father of the famously domineering Elisabeth Farnese
Aug 12 Antonio Balestra an Italian painter of the Rococo period.
Aug 13 William Wotton an English theologian,classical scholar and linguist. He is chiefly remembered for his remarkable abilities in learning languages and for his involvement in the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. In Wales he is remembered as the collector and first translator of the ancient Welsh laws
Aug 27 Ivan V of Russia a joint Tsar of Russia who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696. He was the youngest son of Alexis I of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya. His reign was only formal, since he had serious physical and mental disabilities. He sat still for hours at a time and needed assistance in order to walk
Sep 5 Gottfried Arnold a German Lutheran theologian and historian.
Sep 15 Sophia Dorothea of Celle the repudiated wife of George I of Great Britain and mother of George The union with her first cousin was an arranged marriage of state, instigated by the machinations of his mother, Sophia of Hanover. She is best remembered for her alleged affair with Philip Christoph von Königsmarck that led to her being imprisoned in the Castle of Ahlden for the last thirty years of her life
Sep 16 Antoine Parent a French mathematician, born at Paris and died there, who wrote in 1700 on analytical geometry of three dimensions. His works were collected and published in three volumes at Paris in 1713
Oct 17 John William III Duke of Saxe-Eisenach a duke of Saxe-Eisenach.
Nov 1 James Sherard an English apothecary, botanist, and amateur musician. He was born in Bushby, Leicestershire to George and Mary Sherwood; it is unknown why his surname was changed. His older brother, William, also became a noted botanist. James Sherard may have been educated at Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood, which his brother attended, but his name is nowhere to be found in the published list of students. On 7 February 1682, apothecary Charles Watts, who served as curator of Chelsea Physic Garden, took him in as an apprentice. After honing his craft with Watts, Sherard moved to Mark Lane, London, where he started his own business
Nov 5 Attilio Ariosti a Servite Friar and Italian composer in the Baroque style, born in Bologna. He produced more than 30 operas and oratorios, numerous cantatas and instrumental works
Nov 9 Carl Gustaf Armfeldt a Swedish officer, general and friherre who took part in the Great Northern War.
Nov 17 Benedetto Luti an Italian painter.
Nov 25 Giuseppe Giovanni Battista Guarneri a violin maker from the prominent Guarneri family of luthiers who lived in Cremona, Italy.
Nov 27 Georg Philipp Rugendas a German battle and military genre painter and engraver.
Dec 5 Francesco Scarlatti an Italian Baroque composer and musician and brother of the better known Alessandro Scarlatti.
Dec 22 Guru Gobind Singh the last of the ten Sikh Gurus. He was a warrior, poet and philosopher. He succeeded his father Guru Tegh Bahadur as the leader of Sikhs at the young age of nine. He contributed much to Sikhism; notable was his contribution to the continual formalisation of the faith which the first Guru Guru Nanak had founded, as a religion, in the 15th century; and his promotion of the covering of one's hair with a turban. Guru Gobind Singh, the last of the living Sikh Gurus, initiated the Sikh Khalsa in 1699, passing the Guruship of the Sikhs to the Eleventh and Eternal Sikh Guru, the Guru Granth Sahib, the sacred Book of the Sikhs