Died in 1670

Jan 3 George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle an English soldier, a politician and was the key figure in effecting the Restoration of the Monarchy to King Charles II in 1660.
Jan 17 Tsarevich Alexei Alexeyevich of Russia the second son and heir of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, brother of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half-brother of Tsar Peter the Great. He died before he had a chance to succeed to the throne
Jan 21 Honorat de Bueil seigneur de Racan a French aristocrat, soldier, poet, dramatist and member of the Académie française.
Jan 21 Claude Duval a French-born gentleman highwayman in post-Restoration Britain.
Jan 25 Nicholas Francis Duke of Lorraine briefly Duke of Lorraine and Duke of Bar for a few months in 1634, spanning the time between the abdication of his older brother and his own resignation. He was therefore Duke during the invasion of Lorraine by the French in the Thirty Years War
Feb 9 Frederick III of Denmark king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. He also governed under the name Frederick II as diocesan administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden , and the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen
Mar 10 Johann Rudolf Glauber a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist. Some historians of science have described him as one of the first chemical engineers. His discovery of sodium sulfate in 1625 led to the compound being named after him: "Glauber's salt"
Apr 6 Leonora Baroni an Italian singer, theorbist, lutenist, viol player, and composer.
Apr 9 Samuel de Sorbiere best known for his promotion of the works of Thomas Hobbes and Pierre Gassendi, in whose view of physics he placed his support, though unable to refute René Descartes, but who developed a reputation in his own day for a truculent and disputatious nature. Sorbière is regarded often by his position on ethics and disclosure about medical mistakes. In 1672 Sorbière considered the idea of being honest and upfront about a mistake having been made in medicine but thought that it might seriously jeopardise medical practice and concluded that it "would not catch on"
May 10 Claude Vignon a leading French painter and engraver working in the Baroque manner.
May 19 Ferdinando Ughelli an Italian Cistercian monk and church historian.
May 21 Niccolò Zucchi an Italian Jesuit, astronomer, and physicist.
May 23 Ferdinando II de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany grand duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670. He was the eldest child of Cosimo II de' Medici and Maria Maddalena of Austria. His 49 year rule was punctuated by the beginning of Tuscany's long economic decline. He married Vittoria della Rovere, with whom he had two children: Cosimo III de' Medici, his eventual successor, and Francesco Maria de' Medici, a cardinal
May 30 John Davenport (minister) an English Puritan clergyman and co-founder of the American colony of New Haven.
Jun 30 Henrietta of England the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France. Fleeing England with her governess at the age of three, she moved to the court of her first cousin Louis XIV of France, where she was known as Minette. After she married Philippe of France, brother of King Louis XIV, known as Monsieur at court, she became known as Madame. Very popular with the court, her marriage was marked by frequent tensions. Henrietta was instrumental in negotiating the Secret Treaty of Dover prior to her unexpected death in June 1670. Jacobite claims to the throne of Great Britain following the death of Henry Benedict Stuart descend from her through her daughter Anne Marie, Queen of Sardinia
Aug 24 William Neile an English mathematician and founder member of the Royal Society. His major mathematical work, the rectification of the semicubical parabola, was carried out when he was aged nineteen, and was published by John Wallis. By carrying out the determination of arc lengths on a curve given algebraically, in other words by extending to algebraic curves generally with Cartesian geometry a basic concept from differential geometry, it represented a major advance in what would become infinitesimal calculus. His name also appears as Neil
Sep 16 William Penn (Royal Navy officer) an English admiral and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1670. He was the father of William Penn, founder of the Province of Pennsylvania
Oct 11 Louis Le Vau a French Classical architect who worked for Louis XIV of France. He was born and died in Paris
Oct 26 Samuel Collins (physician) a British doctor and author. Collins was a personal physician to Alexis I of Russia in 1659–1666 and the author of The Present State of Russia printed in London in 1667
Oct 27 Vavasor Powell a Welsh Nonconformist Puritan preacher, evangelist, church leader and writer.
Nov 3 Salomon van Ruysdael a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter. He was the uncle of Jacob van Ruisdael
Nov 8 Emmanuel Prince of Anhalt-Köthen a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Plötzkau. From 1665, he was ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Köthen
Nov 15 John Amos Comenius a Czech teacher, educator and writer. He served as the last bishop of Unity of the Brethren and became a religious refugee and one of the earliest champions of universal education, a concept eventually set forth in his book Didactica Magna. He is considered the father of modern education. Comenius was the innovator who first introduced pictorial textbooks, written in native language instead of Latin, applied effective teaching based on the natural gradual growth from simple to more comprehensive concepts, supported lifelong learning and development of logical thinking by moving from dull memorization, presented and supported the idea of equal opportunity for impoverished children, opened doors to education for women, made instruction universal and practical. He lived and worked in many different countries in Europe, including Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Transylvania, the Holy Roman Empire, England, the Netherlands and Royal Hungary
Nov 21 William VII Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel.
Nov 26 Jacob van Loo a painter of the Dutch Golden Age, chiefly active in Amsterdam and, after 1660, in Paris. Van Loo is known for his conversational groupings; particularly his mythological and biblical scenes generally attributed to the genre of History painting. He was especially celebrated for the quality of his nudes to the extent that, during his lifetime, particularly his female figures were said to have been considered superior and more popular than those of his Amsterdam contemporary and competitor Rembrandt. In 1663, three years after fleeing to Paris, Jacob van Loo was accepted into the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture
Dec 16 Bartholomeus van der Helst a Dutch portrait painter.