Died in 1676

Jan 14 Francesco Cavalli an Italian composer of the early Baroque period. His real name was Pietro Francesco Caletti-Bruni, but he is better known by that of Cavalli, the name of his patron Federico Cavalli, a Venetian nobleman
Jan 29 Alexis of Russia the Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid-17th century. His reign saw the Russian invasion of Poland and war with Sweden during the Deluge, the Raskol schism in the Russian Orthodox Church, and the Cossack revolt of Stenka Razin. On the eve of his death in 1676, the Tsardom of Russia spanned almost 2,000,000,000 acres
Feb 14 Abraham Bosse a French artist, mainly as a printmaker in etching, but also in watercolour.
Mar 21 Henri Sauval a French historian.
Mar 27 Bernardino de Rebolledo a Spanish poet, soldier and diplomat , and one of the most original poets, of the 17th century in Spain. He was a descendent from 1st Count of Rebolledo, don Rodrigo, who received his surname and title from the king of Asturias and León don Ramiro I in 815 during the Reconquista
Apr 6 John Winthrop the Younger governor of Connecticut.
Apr 8 Claudia Felicitas of Austria the eldest daughter of Archduke Ferdinand Charles of Austria, and his wife Anna de' Medici. She was Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, Archduchess of Austria, German Queen, Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia as the spouse of Leopold I
Apr 20 John Clarke (Baptist minister) a medical doctor, Baptist minister, co-founder of the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, author of its influential charter, and a leading advocate of religious freedom in the Americas.
Apr 29 Michiel de Ruyter a Dutch admiral. He is the most famous and one of the most skilled admirals in Dutch history, most famous for his role in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century. He fought the English and French and scored several major victories against them, the best known probably being the Raid on the Medway. The pious De Ruyter was very much loved by his sailors and soldiers; from them his most significant nickname derived: Bestevaêr
May 25 Johann Rahn credited with the first use of the division symbol, ÷ and the therefore sign, ∴. He is known for his Teutsche algebra, the first time the Geteiltzeichen characters appear in print. The symbol is used in Teutsche Algebra, published in 1659. John Pell collaborated with Rahn in this book, which contains an example of the Pell equation, Pell-loading of the English translation of the book of Rahn. There is a controversy in Pell awards, rather than Rahn, authorship notations. Rahn was also, it seems, mayor of the city of Zurich in 1655
May 27 Paul Gerhardt a German hymn writer.
Jun 1 Claes Uggla a Swedish military officer of the 17th century, who served in both the army and the navy, reaching the rank of Admiral before he was killed in action during the naval Battle of Öland.
Jun 13 Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy the wife of the Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria. She had much political influence in her adopted country and with her husband did much to improve the welfare of the Electorate of Bavaria
Jul 5 Carl Gustaf Wrangel a high-ranking Swedish noble, statesman and military commander in the Thirty Years', Torstenson, Bremen, Second Northern and Scanian Wars.
Jul 12 Duchess Elisabeth Sophie of Mecklenburg a German poet and composer.
Jul 17 Madame de Brinvilliers a French aristocrat accused of three murders. She was convicted on the strength of letters written by her dead lover and a confession obtained by torture, so her guilt remains uncertain
Jul 22 Pope Clement X Pope from 29 April 1670 to his death in 1676.
Jul 27 François Hédelin abbé d'Aubignac a French author and cleric.
Aug 12 Metacomet a war chief or sachem of the Wampanoag Indians and their leader in King Philip's War, a widespread uprising against English colonists in New England.
Aug 14 Nicolò Sagredo the 105th Doge of Venice, reigning from February 6, 1675 until his death less than two years later. Little of note occurred during his reign as Venice was still recovering from the Cretan War , which had ended in the reign of his predecessor
Aug 17 Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen a German author.
Aug 18 Jacopo Melani an Italian composer and violinist of the Baroque era. He was born and died in Pistoia, and was the brother of composer Alessandro Melani and singer Atto Melani
Aug 28 Margravine Louise Charlotte of Brandenburg a Duchess consort of Courland. She was politically active during her tenure as duchess consort
Aug 31 Lars Stigzelius Archbishop of Uppsala in the Church of Sweden from 1670 to his death.
Sep 9 Paul de Chomedey Sieur de Maisonneuve a French military officer and the founder of Montreal in New France.
Sep 10 Gerrard Winstanley an English Protestant religious reformer and political activist during The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell. Winstanley was one of the founders of the English group known as the True Levellers or Diggers for their beliefs, and for their actions. The group occupied public lands that had been privatised by enclosures and dug them over, pulling down hedges and filling in ditches, to plant crops. True Levellers was the name they used to describe themselves, whereas the term Diggers was coined by contemporaries
Sep 11 Anna de' Medici Archduchess of Austria a daughter of Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and his wife Maria Maddalena of Austria. A patron of the arts, she married Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria in 1646. They were the parents of Claudia Felicitas of Austria, Holy Roman Empress
Sep 17 Sabbatai Zevi a Sephardic Rabbi and kabbalist who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah. He was the founder of the Jewish Sabbatean movement
Oct 10 Sebastian Knüpfer a German composer. He was the cantor of the Thomanerchor in Leipzig from 1657 to 1676, and director of the city’s music
Oct 26 Nathaniel Bacon (colonist) a colonist of the Virginia Colony, famous as the instigator of Bacon's Rebellion of 1676, which collapsed when Bacon himself died from dysentery.
Oct 28 Jean Desmarets a French writer and dramatist. He was a founding member, and the first to occupy seat 4 of the Académie française in 1634
Nov 1 Gisbertus Voetius a Dutch Calvinist theologian.
Nov 3 Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha a member of the renowned Köprülü family originating from Albania, which produced six grand viziers of the Ottoman Empire.
Dec 1 Aaron Samuel Kaidanover a Polish-Lithuanian rabbi. Among his teachers were Jacob Hoeschel and his son Joshua Hoeschel
Dec 25 William Cavendish 1st Duke of Newcastle an English polymath and aristocrat, having been a poet, equestrian, playwright, swordsman, politician, architect, diplomat and soldier. Born into the very wealthy Cavendish family at Handsworth in the county of Yorkshire, William's family had a good relationship with the ruling Stuart monarchy and began to gather prominence after he was invested as a Knight of the Bath and soon inherited his father's Northern England estates
Dec 25 Matthew Hale (jurist) an influential English barrister, judge and lawyer most noted for his treatise Historia Placitorum Coronæ, or The History of the Pleas of the Crown. Born to a barrister and his wife, who had both died by the time he was 5, Hale was raised by his father's relative, a strict Puritan, and inherited his faith. In 1626 he matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford , intending to become a priest, but after a series of distractions was persuaded to become a barrister like his father thanks to an encounter with a Serjeant-at-Law in a dispute over his estate. On 8 November 1628 he joined Lincoln's Inn, where he was called to the Bar on 17 May 1636. As a barrister, Hale represented a variety of Royalist figures during the prelude and duration of the English Civil War, including Thomas Wentworth and William Laud; it has been hypothesised that Hale was to represent Charles I at his state trial, and conceived the defence Charles used. Despite the Royalist loss, Hale's reputation for integrity and his political neutrality saved him from any repercussions, and under the Commonwealth of England he was made Chairman of the Hale Commission, which investigated law reform. Following the Commission's dissolution, Oliver Cromwell made him a Justice of the Common Pleas