Died in 1677

Jan 18 Jan van Riebeeck a Dutch colonial administrator and founder of Cape Town.
Feb 21 Baruch Spinoza a Dutch philosopher. The breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully realized until many years after his death. By laying the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, including modern conceptions of the self and, arguably, the universe, he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy. His magnum opus, the posthumous Ethics, in which he opposed Descartes's mind–body dualism, has earned him recognition as one of Western philosophy's most important thinkers. In the Ethics, "Spinoza wrote the last indisputable Latin masterpiece, and one in which the refined conceptions of medieval philosophy are finally turned against themselves and destroyed entirely." Philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel said of all contemporary philosophers, "You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all."
Mar 19 Anthonie van Borssom a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter.
Mar 25 Wenceslaus Hollar a Bohemian etcher, known in England as Wenceslaus or Wenceslas and in Germany as Wenzel Hollar. He was born in Prague, and died in London, being buried at St Margaret's Church, Westminster
May 4 Isaac Barrow generally given credit for his early role in the development of infinitesimal calculus; in particular, for the discovery of the fundamental theorem of calculus. His work centered on the properties of the tangent; Barrow was the first to calculate the tangents of the kappa curve. Isaac Newton was a student of Barrow's, and Newton went on to develop calculus in a modern form. The lunar crater Barrow is named after him
May 20 George Digby 2nd Earl of Bristol an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 until 1641 when he was raised to the House of Lords. He supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil War but his ambition and instability of character caused serious problems to himself and the Kings he served
Jun 23 William Louis Duke of Württemberg the ruler of the senior Duchy of Württemberg from 1674 until his death in 1677.
Jul 9 Angelus Silesius a German Catholic priest and physician, known as a mystic and religious poet. Born and raised a Lutheran, he adopted the name Angelus and the surname Silesius on converting to Catholicism in 1653. While studying in the Netherlands, he began to read the works of medieval mystics and became acquainted with the works of the German mystic Jacob Böhme through Böhme's friend, Abraham von Franckenberg. Silesius's mystical beliefs caused tension between him and Lutheran authorities and led to his eventual conversion to Catholicism. He took holy orders under the Franciscans and was ordained a priest in 1661. Ten years later, in 1671, he retired to a Jesuit house where he remained for the rest of his life
Aug 1 George Christian Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg the third Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.
Aug 28 Wallerant Vaillant a painter of the Dutch Golden Age and one of the first artists to use the mezzotint technique, which he probably helped to develop.
Sep 5 Henry Oldenburg a German theologian known as a diplomat and a natural philosopher. He was one of the foremost intelligencers of Europe of the seventeenth century, with a network of correspondents to rival those of Fabri de Peiresc, Marin Mersenne and Ismaël Boulliau. At the foundation of the Royal Society he took on the task of foreign correspondence, as the first Secretary
Sep 11 James Harrington (author) an English political theorist of classical republicanism, best known for his controversial work, The Commonwealth of Oceana. This work was an exposition on an ideal constitution, designed to facilitate the development of a utopian republic
Oct 9 Gustav Adolph Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken Count of Saarbrücken and Major General at the Rhine of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation.
Oct 14 Józef Bartłomiej Zimorowic a Polish poet and historian of the Baroque era, most famous for his pastoral poems Sielanki nowe ruskie , first published in Kraków in 1663. He was born into a Lwów Armenian family, his father was of a stonemason, Stanisŀaw Ozimek, and educated at the cathedral school in the city. He began to work for the city chancellery and in 1624 changed his surname to Zimorowic in order to advance his career by distancing himself from his artisanal background. He married Katarzyna Duchnicówna, the daughter of a rich goldsmith. In 1640, he took over the running of the city chancellery, became a councillor and was several times mayor of Lwów, which allowed him to take part in the election of King Jan Kazimierz in 1648
Oct 14 Francis Glisson a British physician, anatomist, and writer on medical subjects. He did important work on the anatomy of the liver, and he wrote an early pediatric text on rickets. An experiment he performed helped debunk the balloonist theory of muscle contraction by showing that when a muscle contracted under water, the water level did not rise, and thus no air or fluid could be entering the muscle
Oct 29 Charles Coypeau d'Assoucy a French musician and burlesque poet. In the mid-1630s he began using the nom de plume "D'Assouci" or "Dassoucy"
Nov 9 Gilbert Sheldon an English Archbishop of Canterbury.
Nov 9 Aert van der Neer a landscape painter of the Dutch Golden Age, specializing in small night scenes lit only by moonlight and fires, and snowy winter landscapes, both often looking down a canal or river. He was a contemporary of Albert Cuyp and Meindert Hobbema, and like the latter he lived and died in comparative obscurity
Nov 11 Barbara Strozzi an Italian Baroque singer and composer.