Born in 1678

Jan 15 François Gigot de la Peyronie a French surgeon who was born in Montpellier, France. His name is associated with a condition known as Peyronie's disease
Mar 4 Antonio Vivaldi an Italian Baroque composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and cleric. Born in Venice, he was recognized as one of the greatest Baroque composers, and his influence during his lifetime was widespread across Europe. He is known mainly for composing many instrumental concertos, for the violin and a variety of other instruments, as well as sacred choral works and more than forty operas. His best-known work is a series of violin concertos known as The Four Seasons
Mar 7 Filippo Juvarra an Italian architect and stage set designer, active in a late-Baroque style.
Mar 21 Marie Elisabeth Abbess of Quedlinburg Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg from 1718 until her death.
Apr 14 Abraham Darby I the first and most well known of three generations of that name. Born into an English Quaker family that played an important role in the Industrial Revolution, he developed a method of producing pig iron in a blast furnace fuelled by coke rather than charcoal. This was a major step forward in the production of iron as a raw material for the Industrial Revolution
May 3 Amaro Rodríguez Felipe a famous Spanish pirate.
May 19 Francesco Farnese Duke of Parma reigned as the seventh and penultimate Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1694 until his death. Married to Dorothea Sophia of the Palatinate, his brother Odoardo's widow, to avoid the return of her dowry, Francesco curtailed court expenditure, enormous under his father and predecessor, Ranuccio II, while preventing the occupation of his Duchy of Parma, nominally a Papal fief, during the War of the Spanish Succession
Jun 6 Louis Alexandre Count of Toulouse the son of Louis XIV and of his mistress Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan. At the age of five, he became grand admiral of France
Jul 6 Nicola Francesco Haym an Italian opera librettist, composer, theatre manager and performer, and numismatist. He is best remembered for adapting texts into libretti for the London operas of George Frideric Handel and Giovanni Bononcini. Libretti that he provided for Handel included those for Giulio Cesare, Ottone, Flavio, Tamerlano, Rodelinda, and several others; for Bononcini, he produced two, Calfurnia and Astianatte
Jul 16 Sophie Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel a princess of Hesse-Kassel and by marriage Duchess of Mecklenburg.
Jul 16 Jakob Hermann a mathematician who worked on problems in classical mechanics. He is the author of Phoronomia, an early treatise on Mechanics. In 1729, he proclaimed that it was as easy to graph a locus on the polar coordinate system as it was to graph it on the Cartesian coordinate system
Jul 26 Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor from 1705 until his death in 1711. He was the eldest son of Emperor Leopold I from his third wife, Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg. Joseph was crowned King of Hungary at the age of nine in 1687, and King in Germany at the age of eleven in 1690. He succeeded to the imperial throne and that of Bohemia when his father died
Sep 3 Francis Godolphin 2nd Earl of Godolphin a British politician, styled Viscount Rialton between 1706 and 1712.
Sep 16 Henry St John 1st Viscount Bolingbroke an English politician, government official and political philosopher. He was a leader of the Tories, and supported the Church of England politically despite his antireligious views and opposition to theology. In 1715 he supported the Jacobite rebellion of 1715 which sought to overthrow the new king George Escaping to France he became foreign minister for the Pretender. He was attainted for treason, but reversed course and was allowed to return to England in 1723. He is best known as the philosopher of the Country Party
Sep 26 Peter Lacy known in Russia , was one of the most successful Russian imperial commanders before Rumyantsev and Suvorov. During a military career that spanned half a century, he professed to have been present at a total of 31 campaigns, 18 battles, and 18 sieges. He died at Riga, of which he for many years served as governor
Sep 29 Adrien Maurice de Noailles a French aristocrat and soldier.
Oct 4 Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall and statesman.
Nov 26 Jean-Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan a French geophysicist, astronomer and most notably, chronobiologist, was born in the town of Béziers on 26 November 1678. De Mairan lost his father, François d'Ortous, at age four and his mother twelve years later at age sixteen. Over the course of his life, de Mairan was elected into numerous scientific societies and made key discoveries in a variety of fields including ancient texts and astronomy. His observations and experiments also inspired the beginning of what is now known as the study of biological circadian rhythms. At the age of 92, de Mairan died of pneumonia in Paris on 20 February 1771
Nov 26 Karl Leopold Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1713 to 1747.
Dec 2 Nicolaas Kruik a Dutch land surveyor, cartographer, astronomer and weatherman. He is remembered most today for the Museum De Cruquius bearing his name
Dec 8 Horatio Walpole 1st Baron Walpole a son of Robert Walpole of Houghton, Norfolk, and a younger brother of the Prime Minister of Great Britain Sir Robert Walpole.
Dec 13 Yongzheng Emperor the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty and the third Qing emperor from 1722 to 1735. A hard-working ruler, Yongzheng's main goal was to create an effective government at minimal expense. Like his father, the Kangxi Emperor, Yongzheng used military force to preserve the dynasty's position. His reign was known as despotic, efficient, and vigorous
Dec 14 Daniel Neal an English historian.
Dec 30 William Croft an English composer and organist.