Died in 1678

Jan 24 Joan Maetsuycker the Governor of Zeylan during the Dutch period in Ceylon and Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1653 to 1678. He was appointed as Governor of Zeylan in 24 March 1646 and was Governor until 26 February 1650. He was succeeded by Jacob van Kittensteyn
Jan 29 Jerónimo Lobo a Portuguese Jesuit missionary. He took part in the unsuccessful efforts to convert Ethiopia from the native Ethiopian church to Roman Catholicism until the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1643. Afterwards he wrote an account of his time in Ethiopia, Itinerário, which is an important source for the history and culture of that country
Jan 30 Antonio de Pereda a Spanish Baroque-era painter, best known for his still lifes.
Apr 12 Thomas Stanley (author) an English author and translator.
Apr 24 Louis VI Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1661 to 1678.
May 3 Bernhard II Duke of Saxe-Jena duke of Saxe-Jena.
Jun 22 Otto Marseus van Schrieck a painter in the Dutch Golden Age. He is best known for his paintings of forest flora and fauna
Jul 12 Antoine III de Gramont a French military man and diplomat. Marshal of France from 1641; Viceroy of Navarre and Béarn, and Governor of Bayonne
Aug 5 Juan García de Zéspedes a Mexican composer, singer, viol player, and teacher.
Aug 16 Andrew Marvell an English metaphysical poet and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1678. As a metaphysical poet, he is associated with John Donne and George Herbert. He was a colleague and friend of John Milton. His poems include "To His Coy Mistress", "The Garden", "An Horatian Ode upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland", "The Mower's Song" and the country house poem "Upon Appleton House"
Aug 22 Giovanni Battista Falda an Italian architect, engraver and artist. He is known for his engravings of both contemporary and antique structures of Rome
Aug 28 John Berkeley 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton an English royalist soldier. From 1648 he was closely associated with James, Duke of York, and rose to prominence, fortune and fame. He and Sir George Carteret were the founders of the U.S. state of New Jersey
Aug 31 Louis VII Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt a Hessian regent.
Sep 1 Jan Brueghel the Younger a Flemish Baroque painter, and the son of Jan Brueghel the Elder.
Sep 8 Pietro della Vecchia an Italian painter also known as Pietro Muttoni.
Sep 19 Christoph Bernhard von Galen prince-bishop of Münster. He was born into a noble Westphalian family
Sep 28 Maurizio Cazzati a northern Italian composer of the seventeenth century.
Oct 2 Wu Sangui a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644. Considered by traditional scholars as a traitor to both Ming, and ultimately, Qing, Wu in 1678 declared himself Emperor of China and ruler of the "Great Zhou", but his revolt was eventually quelled by the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty
Oct 5 Hedevig Ulfeldt the daughter of king Christian IV of Denmark and Kirsten Munk. She was the twin of her sister Christiane Sehested. She shared the title Countess of Schleswig-Holstein with her mother and siblings
Oct 7 Denis Amelote Cong. Orat., , was a French Biblical writer and scholar who is notable for his French translation of the New Testament. In his translation he quoted Greek minuscule manuscripts: 42, 43, 44, and 149
Oct 12 Edmund Berry Godfrey an English magistrate whose mysterious death caused anti-Catholic uproar in England. Contemporary documents also spell the name Edmundbury Godfrey
Oct 12 Pieter Codde Jacobsz. Codde was a Dutch painter of genre works, guardroom scenes and portraits
Oct 18 Jacob Jordaens one of three Flemish Baroque painters, along with Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, to bring prestige to the Antwerp school of painting. Unlike those contemporaries he never traveled abroad to study Italian painting, and his career is marked by an indifference to their intellectual and courtly aspirations. In fact, except for a few short trips to locations in the Low Countries, he remained in Antwerp his entire life. As well as being a successful painter, he was a prominent designer of tapestries. Like Rubens, Jordaens painted altarpieces, mythological, and allegorical scenes, and after 1640—the year Rubens died—he was the most important painter in Antwerp for large-scale commissions and the status of his patrons increased in general. However, he is best known today for his numerous large genre scenes based on proverbs in the manner of his contemporary Jan Brueghel the Elder, depicting The King Drinks and As the Old Sing, So Pipe the Young. Jordaens's main artistic influences, besides Rubens and the Brueghel family, were northern Italian painters such as Jacopo Bassano, Paolo Veronese, and Caravaggio
Nov 1 William Coddington an early magistrate of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and later of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. He served as the Judge of Portsmouth, Judge of Newport, Governor of Portsmouth and Newport, Deputy Governor of the entire colony, and then Governor of the colony. Born and raised in Lincolnshire, England, he accompanied the Winthrop Fleet in its voyage to New England in 1630, becoming an early leader in Boston. Here he built the first brick house, and became heavily involved in the local government as an assistant , treasurer, and deputy
Nov 5 Giovan Battista Nani a Venetian ambassador, librarian, archivist, amateur botanist and historian, born into a patrician family.
Nov 18 Giovanni Maria Bononcini an Italian violinist and composer, the father of a musical dynasty.
Nov 20 Karel Dujardin a Dutch Golden Age painter. Although he did a few portraits and a few history paintings of religious subjects, most of his work is small Italianate landscape scenes with animals and peasants, and other genre scenes. Dujardin spent two extended periods, at the beginning and end of his career, in Italy, and most of his paintings and landscape etchings have an Italian or Italianate setting
Nov 29 George Ducas three times Prince of Moldavia and one time Prince of Wallachia.
Dec 9 Jürgen Ovens a portrait painter from North Frisia and, according to Arnold Houbraken, a pupil of Rembrandt. He is best known for his painting in the city hall of Amsterdam and paintings for the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp for whom he worked for more than 30 years, also as an art dealer