Died in 1679

Jan 14 Jacques de Billy a French Jesuit mathematician. Born in Compiègne, he subsequently entered the Society of Jesus. From 1629 to 1630, Billy taught mathematics at the Jesuit College at Pontà Mousson. He was still studying theology at this time. From 1631 to 1633, Billy taught mathematics at the Jesuit college at Rheims. From 1665 to 1668 he was professor of mathematics at the Jesuit college at Dijon. One of his pupils there was Jacques Ozanam. Billy also taught in Grenoble. He also served as rector of a number of Jesuit Colleges in Châlons, Langres and in Sens
Jan 15 Pierre Lambert de la Motte a French bishop. He was a founding member of the Paris Foreign Missions Society and became a missionary in Asia
Feb 3 Jan Steen a Dutch genre painter of the 17th century. Psychological insight, sense of humour and abundance of colour are marks of his trade
Feb 5 Joost van den Vondel a Dutch writer and playwright. He is considered the most prominent Dutch poet and playwright of the 17th century. His plays are the ones from that period that are still most frequently performed, and his epic Joannes de Boetgezant , on the life of John the Baptist, has been called the greatest Dutch epic
Feb 6 Margherita de' Medici Duchess of Parma and Piacenza by her marriage to Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma. Margherita was regent of Piacenza in 1635 and regent of the entire duchy in 1646 after the death of her husband
Feb 8 Tsarevna Irina Mikhailovna of Russia the eldest daughter of Tsar Michael of Russia from his second marriage to Eudoxia Streshneva, a noblewoman from Mozhaysk. She was the elder sister of Alexis of Russia
Feb 18 Anne Conway Viscountess Conway an English philosopher whose work, in the tradition of the Cambridge Platonists, was an influence on Leibniz. Conway's thought is original as it is rationalist philosophy, with hallmarks of gynocentric concerns and patterns, and in that sense it was unique among seventeenth-century systems
Mar 13 Christiane of Saxe-Merseburg a German noblewoman member of the House of Wettin and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Mar 15 Antonio Maria Abbatini an Italian composer, active mainly in Rome.
Mar 16 John Leverett an English colonial magistrate, merchant, soldier and governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Born in England, he came to Massachusetts as a teenager. He was a leading merchant in the colony, and served in its military. In the 1640s he went back to England to fight in the English Civil War
Mar 23 François Combefis a French Dominican patrologist. He published previously unedited works by Saint John Chrysostom
Mar 26 Johannes Schefferus one of the most important Swedish humanists of his time. He was also known as Angelus and is remembered for writing hymns
Mar 27 Abraham Mignon a Dutch golden age painter, specialized in flower bouquets.
Apr 4 Christian Hoffmann von Hoffmannswaldau a German poet of the Baroque era.
Apr 17 Jan van Kessel the Elder a Flemish painter of still lifes and Jan Brueghel the Elder's grandson.
May 1 Esaias Reusner a German lutenist and composer.
May 3 James Sharp (bishop) a Scottish minister, and later Archbishop of St Andrews.
May 26 Ferdinand Maria Elector of Bavaria a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 1651 to 1679.
Jun 15 Guillaume Courtois a French-Italian painter and etcher, active mainly in Rome as a battle-painter and painter of sacred subjects. He was the brother of the Jesuit painter Jacques Courtois
Jun 15 Andrzej Maksymilian Fredro a Polish szlachcic and writer.
Jul 12 Yuriy Trubetskoy a Ruthenian Prince, boyar of the Trubetsky family. In 1657, Prince Jurij Trubetsky went to Moscow with his uncle Aleksandr Yurievitch Trubetzkoy. Stolnik in Moscow in 1660, he was given a boyar title by Tsar Alexis I of Russia in 1673. In the late 17th century, the weakened Republic of Both Nations under King Jan III Sobieski in alliance with the forces of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, dealt the crushing defeats to the Ottoman Empire; Jerzy Trubecki was the Polish wojewoda of Kiev Voivodeship, 1673. He hold the scepter at the coronation of Fedor Alexeevitch in 1676
Jul 27 Cornelis van der Lijn Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1646 until 1650.
Aug 6 John Snell born in Ayrshire, Scotland, the son of a blacksmith.
Aug 12 Marie de Rohan a French aristocrat, famed for being the center of many of the intrigues of the first half of the 17th century in France. In various sources, she is often known simply as Madame de Chevreuse
Aug 24 Jean François Paul de Gondi a French churchman, writer of memoirs, and agitator in the Fronde.
Sep 2 Sir Thomas Modyford 1st Baronet a planter of Barbados and Governor of Jamaica, 1664-70.
Sep 17 John of Austria the Younger a Spanish general and political figure. He was the only natural son of Philip IV of Spain to be acknowledged by the King and trained for military command and political administration. Don John advanced the causes of the Spanish Crown militarily and diplomatically at Naples, Sicily, Catalonia, the Netherlands, Portugal, Dunkirk and other fronts, and remained a popular hero even as the fortunes of Imperial Spain began to decline. In 1677 in a palace coup he took control of the monarchy of his half-brother Charles II of Spain, but he proved far from the savior Spain had hoped he would He remained in power until his death in 1679
Oct 12 William Gurnall an English author and clergyman born at King's Lynn, Norfolk.
Oct 16 Roger Boyle 1st Earl of Orrery a soldier, dramatist and politician from the British Isles who sat in the House of Commons of England at various times between 1654 and 1679. Lord Broghill, as Boyle was then called, fought in the Irish Confederate Wars and subsequently became known for his antagonism towards Irish Catholics and their political aspirations. He was a noted playwright and writer on 17th century warfare
Dec 4 Thomas Hobbes an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established social contract theory, the foundation of most later Western political philosophy
Dec 10 Francesco Barberini (1597–1679) an Italian Catholic Cardinal. The nephew of Pope Urban VIII , he benefited immensely from the nepotism practiced by his uncle. He was given various roles within the Vatican administration but his personal cultural interests, particularly in literature and the arts, meant that he became a highly significant patron. His secretary was the antiquarian Cassiano dal Pozzo who was also a discerning patron of the arts. Francesco was the elder brother of Cardinal Antonio Barberini and Taddeo Barberini who became Prince of Palestrina
Dec 18 John Frederick Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg, a subdivision of the duchy, from 1665 until his death.
Dec 20 John Maurice Prince of Nassau-Siegen count and prince of Nassau-Siegen, and Grand Master of the Order of Saint John.
Dec 31 Giovanni Alfonso Borelli a Renaissance Italian physiologist, physicist, and mathematician. He contributed to the modern principle of scientific investigation by continuing Galileo's custom of testing hypotheses against observation. Trained in mathematics, Borelli also made extensive studies of Jupiter's moons, the mechanics of animal locomotion and, in microscopy, of the constituents of blood. He also used microscopy to investigate the stomatal movement of plants, and undertook studies in medicine and geology. During his career, he enjoyed the patronage of Queen Christina of Sweden