Died in 1680

Feb 11 Elisabeth of the Palatinate known for her intelligent and caring nature. She was the eldest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, who was briefly King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. She was born in Heidelberg, Germany, spending the first nine years of her life there. When she was nine, she went to live in Leyden, Holland with her brother and was raised in a nursery palace to complete her studies. After finishing her studies, she was deemed ready to live in The Hague with her mother. Elisabeth was sent back to live in Germany and then eventually took her vows in a Protestant convent at Herford Abbey in Westphalia as Princess-Abbess. She influenced many key figures and philosophers, most notably René Descartes. During her days as head of the Abbey, she provided refuge for many Protestants during a time of great persecution. She is most famous for questioning Descartes' idea of Dualism, or the mind being separate from the body, in addition to questioning his theories regarding communication between the mind and body. The written correspondence of Descartes and Elisabeth is now revered as important philosophical documents, giving insight into the theoretical debates of the 17th century. Elisabeth died in 1680 after suffering from a painful illness for several years
Feb 17 Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles an English statesman and writer, best known as one of the Five Members whose attempted unconstitutional arrest by King Charles I in the House of Commons of England in 1642 sparked the Civil War.
Feb 17 Frans Post a Dutch painter.
Feb 17 Jan Swammerdam a Dutch biologist and microscopist. His work on insects demonstrated that the various phases during the life of an insect—egg, larva, pupa, and adult—are different forms of the same animal. As part of his anatomical research, he carried out experiments on muscle contraction. In 1658, he was the first to observe and describe red blood cells. He was one of the first people to use the microscope in dissections, and his techniques remained useful for hundreds of years
Feb 22 La Voisin a French fortune teller, poisoner and an alleged sorceress, one of the chief personages in the affaire des poisons, during the reign of Louis XIV.
Mar 14 René Le Bossu a French critic.
Mar 17 François de La Rochefoucauld (writer) a noted French author of maxims and memoirs. His is a clear-eyed, worldly view of human conduct that indulges in neither condemnation nor sentimentality. Born in Paris on the Rue des Petits Champs, at a time when the royal court was oscillating between aiding the nobility and threatening it, he was considered an exemplar of the accomplished 17th-century nobleman. Until 1650, he bore the title of Prince de Marcillac
Mar 23 Nicolas Fouquet the Superintendent of Finances in France from 1653 until 1661 under King Louis XIV. He fell out of favor with the young king, probably because of his extravagant displays of wealth, and the king had him imprisoned from 1661 until his death in 1680
Mar 27 Bogdan Khitrovo a high-placed Russian statesman, or boyar, who served Tsar Alexis and his son Fyodor III, supporting the party of Maria Miloslavskaya. He is also noted for his patronage of icon-painter Simon Ushakov and Simeon of Polotsk, the first Russian poet
Apr 3 Shivaji an Indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji, in 1674, carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of an independent Maratha Empire with Raigad as its capital
Apr 4 Peter Lambeck a German historian and librarian.
Apr 17 Kateri Tekakwitha a Roman Catholic saint who was an Algonquin–Mohawk virgin and laywoman. Born in Auriesville , she suffered from smallpox as a young child which scarred her face and made her eyes weakened greatly. She converted to Roman Catholicism at age nineteen and was renamed Kateri. She settled for the remaining years of her life at the Jesuit mission village of Kahnawake, south of Montreal in New France, now Canada
Apr 19 Marie Hedwig of Hesse-Darmstadt a Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt by birth and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen.
May 31 Joachim Neander generally regarded as one of the greatest hymns of praise of the Christian church and, since being translated into English by Catherine Winkworth in the 19th century, it has appeared in most major hymnals.
Jun 4 Tokugawa Ietsuna the fourth shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan who was in office from 1651 to 1680. He was the eldest son of Tokugawa Iemitsu, thus making him the grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu
Jun 4 Augustus Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels a Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt of the House of Wettin and administrator of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg.
Jun 10 Johan Göransson Gyllenstierna a Swedish statesman.
Jul 10 Louis Moréri a French priest and encyclopaedist.
Jul 22 Richard Cameron (Covenanter) a leader of the militant Presbyterians, known as Covenanters, who resisted attempts by the Stuart monarchs to control the affairs of the Church of Scotland, acting through bishops. While attempting to revive the flagging fortunes of the Covenanting cause in 1680, he was tracked down by the authorities and killed in a clash of arms at Airds Moss in Ayrshire. His followers took his name as the Cameronians and ultimately formed the nucleus of the later Scottish regiment of the same name, the Cameronians. The regiment was disbanded in 1968
Jul 26 John Wilmot 2nd Earl of Rochester an English poet and courtier of King Charles II's Restoration court. The Restoration reacted against the "spiritual authoritarianism" of the Puritan era. Rochester was the embodiment of the new era, and he is as well known for his rakish lifestyle as his poetry, although the two were often interlinked. In 1669 he committed treason by boxing the ears of Thomas Killigrew in sight of the monarch, and in 1673 he accidentally delivered an insulting diatribe to the King. He died at the age of 33 from venereal disease
Jul 30 Thomas Butler 6th Earl of Ossory an Irish politician. He was born at Kilkenny Castle, the eldest son of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde and Lady Elizabeth Preston
Aug 11 Ivan Sirko a Cossack military leader, Koshovyi Otaman of the Zaporozhian Host and putative co-author of the famous semi-legendary Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks that inspired a major painting by the 19th-century artist Ilya Repin.
Aug 19 John Eudes a French missionary and priest, who founded the Congregation of Jesus and Mary and the Order of Our Lady of Charity, and was the author of the propers for the Mass and Divine Office of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. He has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church
Aug 20 William Bedloe an English fraudster and informer.
Aug 22 John George II Elector of Saxony the Elector of Saxony from 1656 to 1680. He belonged to the Albertine line of the House of Wettin
Aug 24 Ferdinand Bol a Dutch artist, etcher, and draftsman. Although his surviving work is rare, it displays Rembrandt's influence; like his master, Bol favored historical subjects, portraits, numerous self-portraits, and single figures in exotic finery
Aug 24 Thomas Blood an Anglo-Irish officer and self-styled colonel best known for his attempt to steal the Crown Jewels of England from the Tower of London in 1671. Described in an American source as a "noted bravo and desperado", he was known for his attempt to kidnap, and later, to kill his enemy, the Duke of Ormonde. He had switched allegiances from Royalist to Roundhead during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, and despite his subsequent notoriety received a Royal free pardon and found favour at the court of King Charles II
Aug 28 Charles I Louis Elector Palatine the second son of German king Frederick V of the Palatinate, the "Winter King" of Bohemia, and his wife, Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King James I of England.
Sep 2 Per Brahe the Younger a Swedish soldier and statesman. He was a Privy Councillor from 1630 and Lord High Steward from 1640
Sep 9 Henry Marten (regicide) an English lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons in two periods between 1640 and 1653. He was an ardent republican and a regicide of King Charles I of England
Sep 10 Baldassare Ferri an Italian castrato singer. He is said to have possessed "extraordinary endurance of breath, flexibility of voice and depth of emotion"
Sep 11 Emperor Go-Mizunoo the 108th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Sep 11 Roger Crab best known for his ascetic lifestyle which included Christian vegetarianism. Crab fought in the Parliamentary Army in the English Civil War before becoming a haberdasher in Chesham. He later became a hermit and worked as a herbal doctor. He then joined the Philadelphians and began promoting asceticism through his writings
Sep 25 Samuel Butler (poet) a poet and satirist. He is remembered now chiefly for a long satirical poem entitled Hudibras
Sep 30 Johann Grueber an Austrian Jesuit missionary and astronomer in China, and noted explorer.
Oct 4 Pierre-Paul Riquet the engineer and canal-builder responsible for the construction of the Canal du Midi.
Oct 16 Raimondo Montecuccoli an Italian military commander who also served as general for the Habsburg Monarchy, and was also a prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Neapolitan Duke of Melfi.
Oct 30 Antoinette Bourignon a French-Flemish mystic and adventurer. She taught that the end times would come soon and that the Last Judgment would then be felled. Her belief was that she was chosen by God to restore true Christianity on earth and became the central figure of a spiritual network that extended beyond the borders of the Dutch Republic, including Holstein and Scotland. Bourignon's sect belonged to the spiritualist movements that have been characterized as the "third power"
Nov 14 Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian noble and magnate. He is sometimes referred to as the first Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł, to distinguish him from the other member of his family to use the name
Nov 28 Gian Lorenzo Bernini an Italian artist and a prominent architect who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture. In addition, he painted, wrote plays, and designed metalwork and stage sets
Nov 28 Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi an Italian architect and painter, named Il Bolognese from the place of his birth. Grimaldi was a relative of the Carracci family, under whom it is presumed he first apprenticed
Nov 30 Peter Lely a painter of Dutch origin, whose career was nearly all spent in England, where he became the dominant portrait painter to the court.
Dec 4 Thomas Bartholin a Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian. He is best known for his work in the discovery of the lymphatic system in humans and for his advancements of the theory of refrigeration anesthesia, being the first to describe it scientifically
Dec 8 Henry Pierrepont 1st Marquess of Dorchester an English peer, the son of the Robert Pierrepont, 1st Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull.
Dec 20 Princess Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg a princess of Saxe-Altenburg and, by marriage, duchess of Saxe-Gotha.