Died in 1681

Jan 7 Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels a German noblewoman.
Jan 28 Richard Allestree a Royalist churchman and provost of Eton College from 1665.
Mar 12 Frans van Mieris the Elder a Dutch Golden Age genre and portrait painter. The leading member of a Leiden family of painters, his sons Jan and Willem and his grandson Frans van Mieris the Younger were also accomplished genre painters
Mar 17 Zheng Jing a 17th-century Chinese warlord and Ming Dynasty loyalist. He was the eldest son of Koxinga and a grandson of the pirate-merchant Zheng Zhilong. After the conquest of Taiwan in 1662 by his father, Zheng Jing controlled the military forces in Xiamen and Quemoy on his father's behalf. Upon the death of his father six months later, Zheng Jing contested throne as the King of Taiwan with his uncle, Zheng Shixi. The dispute was resolved in Zheng Jing's favor after he successfully landed an army in Taiwan despite strong opposition by the forces of his uncle. This was followed by Zheng Shixi withdrawing his claim
Apr 12 Pietro Paolini an Italian painter of the Baroque period. He is also called Paolino which is an affectionate diminutive of his lastname
Apr 23 Justus Sustermans a Flemish painter in the Baroque style. He was born in Antwerp and died in Florence
May 25 Pedro Calderón de la Barca a dramatist, poet and writer of the Spanish Golden Age. During certain periods of his life he was also a soldier and a Roman Catholic priest. Born when the Spanish Golden Age theatre was being defined by Lope de Vega, he developed it further, his work being regarded as the culmination of the Spanish Baroque theatre. As such, he is regarded as one of Spain's foremost dramatists and one of the finest playwrights of world literature
Jun 1 Cornelis Saftleven a Dutch Golden Age painter.
Jun 12 Sigmund von Birken a German poet of the Baroque.
Jun 28 Marie Angélique de Scorailles a French noblewoman and one of the many mistresses of Louis XIV. A lady-in-waiting to his sister-in-law Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess Palatine, the Duchess of Orléans, she caught the attention of the Sun King and became his lover in 1679. She died most probably as a result of complications arising from childbirth
Jul 1 Oliver Plunkett the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland who was the last victim of the Popish Plot. Plunkett was beatified in 1920 and canonised in 1975, the first new Irish saint for almost seven hundred years
Jul 9 Katakura Kagenaga (2nd) a Japanese samurai of the early Edo period, who served as a senior retainer of the Date clan of Sendai han. He bore the same name as his great-grandfather. The lord of Shiroishi Castle, Kagenaga was the third bearer of the common name Kojūrō. During the Date incident , he was a caretaker for the young daimyō, Kamechiyo. Upon receiving news of the actions of Harada Munesuke, Kagenaga immediately brought the domain to emergency footing, restraining any disorder from breaking out and saving the Sendai domain from the danger of being attaindered. However, as he was sickly, he resigned his post immediately following the incident's resolution
Jul 14 Agafya Grushetskaya a Russian noble, Tsaritsa of Russia as the first spouse of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and hails from the Grushetsky family.
Jul 25 Urian Oakes an English-born American minister and educator.
Aug 17 Patriarch Nikon of Moscow the seventh Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus' of the Russian Orthodox Church. This was one of the most important periods in the Church's history, as Nikon introduced many reforms which eventually led to a lasting schism known as Raskol in the Russian Orthodox Church
Aug 27 William Christoph Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg the second Landgraf of Hesse-Homburg during 1648-1669.
Sep 16 Jahanara Begum the eldest daughter of Emperor Shah Jahan and Empress Mumtaz Mahal. She was also the older sister of her father's successor and the sixth Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb
Nov 17 Tito Livio Burattini an inventor, architect, Egyptologist, scientist, instrument-maker, traveller, engineer, and nobleman. He was born in Agordo, Italy, and studied in Padua and Venice. In 1639, he explored the Great Pyramid of Giza with English mathematician John Greaves; both Burattini and Sir Isaac Newton used measurements made by Greaves in an attempt to accurately determine the circumference of the earth
Dec 4 Maurice Duke of Saxe-Zeitz a duke of Saxe-Zeitz and member of the House of Wettin.
Dec 8 Gerard ter Borch a Dutch genre painter, who lived in the Dutch Golden Age.
Dec 12 Hermann Conring a German intellectual. He made significant contributions to the study of medicine, politics and law
Dec 21 Lacuzon the name given to the Franc-Comtois leader Claude Prost.
Dec 22 Richard Alleine an English Puritan divine.