Died in 1682

Jan 1 Jacob Kettler a Baltic German Duke of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. Under his rule, the duchy was brought to its greatest peak in wealth and engaged in colonization
Jan 3 Olaus Verelius held to have been the founder of the Hyperborean School which led to Gothicism.
Feb 2 Jean Le Pautre a French designer and engraver. Le Pautre was an apprentice to a carpenter and builder. In addition to learning mechanical and constructive work, he developed considerable skill with the pencil. His designs, innumerable in quantity and exuberant in content, consisted mainly of ceilings, friezes, chimney-pieces, doorways and mural decorations. He also devised fire-dogs, sideboards, cabinets, console tables, mirrors and other pieces of furniture
Feb 15 Gu Yanwu a Chinese philologist and geographer. He spent his youth during the Manchu conquest of China in anti-Manchu activities after the Ming Dynasty had been overthrown. He never served the Qing Dynasty. Instead, he traveled throughout the country and devoted himself to studies
Feb 18 Baldassarre Longhena an Italian architect, who worked mainly in Venice, where he was one of the greatest exponents of Baroque architecture of the period.
Feb 25 Alessandro Stradella an Italian composer of the middle baroque. He enjoyed a dazzling career as a freelance composer, writing on commission, and collaborating with distinguished poets, producing over three hundred works in a variety of genres
Mar 10 Jacob Isaacksz van Ruisdael considered the most famous of four Haarlem family members who created landscape paintings, though traditionally their works have been difficult to tell apart.
Apr 1 Franz Egon of Fürstenberg the elder son of Egon VIII of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg , who served with distinction as a Bavarian general in the Thirty Years' War.
Apr 3 Bartolomé Esteban Murillo a Spanish Baroque painter. Although he is best known for his religious works, Murillo also produced a considerable number of paintings of contemporary women and children. These lively, realist portraits of flower girls, street urchins, and beggars constitute an extensive and appealing record of the everyday life of his times
Apr 4 Michał Kazimierz Pac a magnate of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and a member of the Pac family. He was a son of Stefan Pac and a brother of Krzysztof Zygmunt Pac, the Chancellor of Lithuania
Apr 14 Avvakum a Russian protopope of Kazan Cathedral on Red Square who led the opposition to Patriarch Nikon's reforms of the Russian Orthodox Church. His autobiography and letters to the tsar, to Boyarynya Morozova and other Old Believers are considered masterpieces of 17th-century Russian literature
May 5 Nishiyama Sōin a haikai-no-renga poet of the early Tokugawa period. He founded the Danrin school of haikai poetry, which aimed to move away from the serious 'bookishness' popular in Japanese poetry at the time and become more in touch with the common people, infusing a spirit of greater freedom into their poetry
May 7 Feodor III of Russia the Tsar of all Russia between 1676 and 1682.
Jul 12 Jean Picard a French astronomer and priest born in La Flèche, where he studied at the Jesuit Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand. He died in Paris, France. He was the first person to measure the size of the Earth to a reasonable degree of accuracy in a survey conducted in 1669–70, for which he is honored with a pyramid at Juvisy-sur-Orge. Guided by Maurolycus's methodology and Snellius's mathematics for doing so, Picard achieved this by measuring one degree of latitude along the Paris Meridian using triangulation along thirteen triangles stretching from Paris to the clocktower of Sourdon, near Amiens. His measurements produced a result of 110.46 km for one degree of latitude, which gives a corresponding terrestrial radius of 6328.9 The polar radius has now been measured at just over 6357 This was an error only 0.44% less than the modern value. This was another example of advances in astronomy and its tools making possible advances in cartography. Picard was the first to attach a telescope with crosswires to a quadrant, and one of the first to use a micrometer screw on his instruments. The quadrant he used to determine the size of the Earth had a radius of 38 inches and was graduated to quarter-minutes. The sextant he used to find the meridian had a radius of six feet, and was equipped with a micrometer to enable minute adjustments. These equipment improvements made the margin of error only ten seconds, as opposed to Tycho Brahe's four minutes of error. This made his measurements 24 times as accurate. Isaac Newton was to use this value in his theory of universal gravitation
Jul 19 Yohannes I nəgusä nägäst of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was the fourth son of Fasilides
Jul 28 Dymitr Jerzy Wiśniowiecki a Polish magnate and szlachcic. Great Guard of the Crown from 1658, Field Hetman of the Crown from 1668, Great Crown Hetman from 1676, voivode of Belz 1660–1678 and Kraków 1678–1681, and castellan of Kraków from 1681. He was starost of Biala Cerkiew, Krzemieniec, Solec, Kamionka Strumilowa, Braha and Luboml
Sep 8 Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz a Spanish Catholic scholastic philosopher, ecclesiastic, mathematician and writer.
Oct 19 Thomas Browne an English polymath and author of varied works which reveal his wide learning in diverse fields including science and medicine, religion and the esoteric. Browne's writings display a deep curiosity towards the natural world, influenced by the scientific revolution of Baconian enquiry, while his Christian faith exuded tolerance and goodwill towards humanity in an often intolerant era
Nov 14 Rijcklof van Goens the Governor of Zeylan and Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He was the Governor of Zeylan from 12 May 1660 to 1661, then in 1663 and finally from 19 November 1664 to 1675 during the Dutch period in Ceylon
Nov 23 Claude Lorrain a French painter, draughtsman and engraver of the Baroque era. He spent most of his life in Italy, and is admired for his achievements in landscape painting
Nov 29 Prince Rupert of the Rhine a noted German soldier, admiral, scientist, sportsman, colonial governor and amateur artist during the 17th century. Rupert was a younger son of the German prince Frederick V, Elector Palatine and his wife Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of James I of England. Thus Rupert was the nephew of King Charles I of England, who made him Duke of Cumberland and Earl of Holderness, and the first cousin of King Charles II of England. His sister Electress Sophia was the mother of George I of Great Britain