Died in 1686

Jan 2 Frederik de Moucheron a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter.
Jan 17 Carlo Dolci an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active mainly in Florence, known for highly finished religious pictures, often repeated in many versions.
Jan 21 François Blondel a soldier, engineer of fortifications, diplomat, civil engineer and military architect, called "the Great Blondel", to distinguish him in a dynasty of French architects. He is remembered for his Cours d'architecture which remained a central text for over a century. His precepts placed him in opposition with Claude Perrault in the larger culture war known under the heading Querelle des anciens et des modernes. If François Blondel was not the most highly reputed among the académiciens of his day, his were the writings that most generally circulated among the general public, the Cours de Mathématiques, the Art de jetter les Bombes, the Nouvelle manière de fortifier les places and, above all his Cours d'Architecture
Jan 31 Jean Mairet a classical French dramatist who wrote both tragedies and comedies.
Feb 10 William Dugdale an English antiquary and herald. As a scholar he was influential in the development of medieval history as an academic subject
Feb 25 Abraham Calovius a Lutheran theologian, and was one of the champions of Lutheran orthodoxy in the 17th century.
Apr 2 Baltasar de la Cueva Count of Castellar viceroy of Peru from August 15, 1674 to July 7, 1678.
Apr 6 Arthur Annesley 1st Earl of Anglesey an Anglo-Irish royalist statesman. After short periods as President of the Council of State and Treasurer of the Navy, he served as Lord Privy Seal between 1673 and 1682 for Charles He succeeded his father as 2nd Viscount Valentia in 1660, and he was created Earl of Anglesey in 1661
Apr 19 Antonio de Solís y Ribadeneyra a Spanish dramatist and historian. His work includes drama, poetry, and prose, and he has been considered one of the last great writers of Spanish Baroque literature
May 11 Otto von Guericke a German scientist, inventor, and politician. His major scientific achievements were the establishment of the physics of vacuums, the discovery of an experimental method for clearly demonstrating electrostatic repulsion, and his advocacy of the reality of "action at a distance" and of "absolute space"
Jun 23 William Coventry an English statesman.
Jul 10 John Fell (bishop) an English churchman and influential academic. He served as Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, and later concomitantly as Bishop of Oxford
Jul 10 Ercole Ferrata an Italian sculptor of the Roman Baroque.
Jul 16 John Pearson (bishop) an English theologian and scholar.
Aug 13 Louis Maimbourg a French Jesuit and historian.
Aug 19 Jean-Baptiste Cotelier a Patristic scholar and Catholic theologian.
Sep 19 John George I Duke of Saxe-Eisenach
Oct 26 John Egerton 2nd Earl of Bridgewater an English nobleman.
Nov 9 Leon Bazyli Sapieha a Polish-Lithuanian politician. He was the treasurer of the Lithuanian court and Lithuanian army general and member of the noble Sapieha family. He was the son of Paweł Jan Sapieha and brother to Jan Kazimierz Sapieha the Younger, amongst many other siblings
Nov 25 Nicolas Steno a Danish scientist, a pioneer in both anatomy and geology who became Catholic bishop in his later years. Steno was trained in the classical texts on science; however, by 1659 he seriously questioned accepted knowledge of the natural world. Importantly he questioned explanations for tear production, the idea that fossils grew in the ground and explanations of rock formation. His investigations and his subsequent conclusions on fossils and rock formation have led scholars to consider him one of the founders of modern stratigraphy and modern geology
Dec 6 Eleonora Gonzaga (1630–1686) Holy Roman Empress as the wife of Emperor Ferdinand III.
Dec 11 Louis Grand Condé a French general and the most famous representative of the Condé branch of the House of Bourbon. Prior to his father's death in 1646, he was styled the Duc d'Enghien. For his military prowess he was renowned as le Grand Condé