Died in 1688

Jan 27 Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang a concubine of the Qing Dynasty ruler Hong Taiji. She was declared his spouse officially although she was not his first wife, becoming empress in 1636. Her life after becoming the empress dowager is more well known historically. She was the mother of Hong Taiji's successor, the Shunzhi Emperor, and grandmother of Shunzhi's successor, Kangxi Emperor. She wielded significant influence in the Qing imperial court during the reign of her son and especially, during that of her grandson. Known for her wisdom and political insight, Empress Xiaozhuangwen is a respected figure in the history of the Qing Dynasty
Feb 2 Abraham Duquesne a French naval officer, who also saw service as an admiral in the Swedish navy. He was born in Dieppe, a seaport, in 1610, and was a Huguenot. He was the son of a naval officer and therefore became a sailor himself, spending his early years in merchant service
Mar 8 Honoré Fabri a French Jesuit theologian. He was a mathematician, physicist and controversialist
Mar 9 Claude Mellan a French engraver and painter.
Mar 15 Charles of Mecklenburg-Güstrow the hereditary prince of Mecklenburg-Güstrow. He was a son of Gustavus Adolph and his wife Magdalene Sibylle née Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, a daughter of Frederick III
Mar 23 Marcantonio Giustinian the 107th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on January 26, 1684 until his death. Giustiniani was the quintessential Doge of the Republic of Venice, taking little interest in affairs of state. He had little role in the conduct of the Morean War , which was raging during his time as Doge, though a number of military victories were secured by provveditore Francesco Morosini, who would later be Giustinian's successor as Doge
Mar 26 Winston Churchill (1620–1688) an English soldier, historian, and politician. He was the father of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, as well as an ancestor of his 20th-century namesake, Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill
Apr 28 Frederick Duke of Mecklenburg-Grabow I of Mecklenburg-Grabow, Duke of Mecklenburg.
Apr 29 Frederick William Elector of Brandenburg Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia – and thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia – from 1640 until his death. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, he is popularly known as "the Great Elector" because of his military and political prowess. Frederick William was a staunch pillar of the Calvinist faith, associated with the rising commercial class. He saw the importance of trade and promoted it vigorously. His shrewd domestic reforms gave Prussia a strong position in the post-Westphalian political order of north-central Europe, setting Prussia up for elevation from duchy to kingdom, achieved under his son and successor
May 14 Antoine Furetière born in Paris.
May 22 Johannes Andreas Quenstedt a German Lutheran dogmatician in the Lutheran scholastic tradition.
Jun 5 Constantine Phaulkon a Greek adventurer, who became prime counsellor to King Narai of Ayutthaya.
Jun 26 Ralph Cudworth an English philosopher, the leader of the Cambridge Platonists.
Jul 11 Narai the king of Ayutthaya from 1656 to 1688 and arguably the most famous Ayutthayan king. His reign was the most prosperous during the Ayutthaya period and saw the great commercial and diplomatic activities with foreign nations including the Persians and the West. During the later years of his reign, Narai gave his favorite – the Greek adventurer Constantine Phaulkon – so much power that Phaulkon technically became the chancellor of the state. Through the arrangements of Phaulkon, the Siamese kingdom came into close diplomatic relations with the court of Louis XIV and French soldiers and missionaries filled the Siamese aristocracy and defense. The dominance of French officials led to frictions between them and the native mandarins and led to the turbulent revolution of 1688 towards the end of his reign. Narai’s reign was also known for the 1662–1664 invasion of Burmese Lanna, the destruction of the briefly independent port city of the Sultanate of Singgora , and the Siam–England war
Jul 21 James Butler 1st Duke of Ormonde an Anglo-Irish statesman and soldier, known as Earl of Ormond from 1634 to 1642 and Marquess of Ormonde from 1642 to 1661. Following the failure of the senior line of the Butler family, he was the second of the Kilcash branch to inherit the earldom. His friend, the 1st Earl of Strafford, caused him to be appointed the commander of the Cavalier forces in Ireland. From 1641 to 1647, he led the fighting against the Irish Catholic Confederation. From 1649 to 1650 he was the leading commander of the Royalist forces in the fight against the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. In the 1650s he lived in exile in Europe with King Charles II of England. Upon the restoration of Charles to the throne in 1660, Ormonde became a major figure in English and Irish politics, holding many high government offices
Aug 25 Henry Morgan a Welsh privateer, pirate and admiral of the English navy who made a name for himself during activities in the Caribbean, primarily raiding Spanish settlements. He earned a reputation as one of the most notorious and successful privateers in history, and one of the most ruthless among those active along the Spanish Main
Aug 31 John Bunyan an English Christian writer and preacher. He is the author of The Pilgrim's Progress, arguably the most famous published Christian allegory. In addition to The Pilgrim's Progress, Bunyan wrote nearly sixty titles, many of them expanded sermons
Sep 22 François Bernier a French physician and traveller. He was born at Joué-Etiau in Anjou. He was briefly personal physician to Prince Dara Shikoh, the elder son of Shah Jahan, and after Dara Shikoh's fall was attached to the court of the Emperor Aurangzeb for around 12 years during his stay in India
Oct 4 Philip de Koninck a Dutch landscape painter and younger brother of Jacob Koninck.
Oct 6 Christopher Monck 2nd Duke of Albemarle an English soldier and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1667 to 1670 when he inherited the Dukedom and sat in the House of Lords.
Oct 14 Joachim von Sandrart a German Baroque art-historian and painter, active in Amsterdam during the Dutch Golden Age.
Oct 23 Charles du Fresne sieur du Cange a distinguished philologist and historian of the Middle Ages and Byzantium.
Nov 16 Bengt Gottfried Forselius a founder of public education in Estonia, author of the first ABC-book in the Estonian language, and creator of a spelling system which made the teaching and learning of Estonian easier. Forselius and Johan Hornung were mainly responsible for making a start at reforming the Estonian literary language in the late 17th century. Some German constructions were abandoned, and a strict spelling system was adopted which still relied on German orthography
Nov 26 Philippe Quinault born in Paris.
Nov 28 Bohuslav Balbín in large part responsible for the developed legend of Saint John of Nepomuk. Balbín graduated University of Olomouc
Dec 15 Louis Victor de Rochechouart de Mortemart a French nobleman and member of the ancient House of Rochechouart. His father Gabriel de Rochechouart de Mortemart was a childhood friend of Louis XIII. His older sister was Gabrielle de Rochechouart de Mortemart, the celebrated beauty of the era; another sister was Madame de Montespan herself the mistress of Louis XIV. He was Général des galères and Marshal of France, Maréchal de Vivonne
Dec 15 Gaspar Fagel a Dutch statesman, writer and quasi-diplomat who authored correspondence from and on behalf of William III, Prince of Orange during the English Revolution of 1688.
Dec 23 Jean-Louis Lully a French musician and composer. He was born in Paris, the youngest son of Jean-Baptiste Lully