Born in 1689

Jan 18 Montesquieu a French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher who lived during the Age of Enlightenment. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. He did more than any other author to secure the place of the word despotism in the political lexicon, and may have been partly responsible for the popularization of the terms feudalism and Byzantine Empire
Feb 3 Blas de Lezo a Spanish admiral and one of the greatest commanders and strategists in the history of the Spanish Navy. He is best remembered for his defensive tactics at the Battle of Cartagena de Indias in modern-day Colombia, where Spanish forces won a decisive victory against the British navy commanded by admiral Vernon
Feb 23 Samuel Bellamy an English pirate who operated in the early 18th century. Though his known career as a pirate captain lasted little more than a year, he and his crew captured at least 53 ships under his command – making him the wealthiest pirate in recorded history – before his death at age 28. Called "Black Sam" in Cape Cod folklore because he eschewed the fashionable powdered wig in favor of tying back his long black hair with a simple band, Bellamy became known for his mercy and generosity toward those he captured on his raids. This reputation earned him another nickname, the "Prince of Pirates". He likened himself to Robin Hood, with his crew calling themselves "Robin Hood's Men"
Feb 27 Pietro Gnocchi an Italian composer, choir director, historian, and geographer of the late Baroque era, active mainly in Brescia, where he was choir director of Brescia Cathedral. In addition to composing an abundance of eccentrically-titled sacred music, all of which remains in manuscript, he wrote a 25-volume history of ancient Greek colonies
Feb 27 Johannes Roosevelt a New York City businessman and alderman and the progenitor of the Oyster Bay Roosevelts, including Theodore and Eleanor Roosevelt. Johannes was a linseed oil manufacturer
May 15 Lady Mary Wortley Montagu an English aristocrat and writer. Lady Mary is today chiefly remembered for her letters, particularly her letters from Turkey, as wife to the British ambassador, which have been described by Billie Melman as “the very first example of a secular work by a woman about the Muslim Orient”
May 24 Daniel Finch 8th Earl of Winchilsea a British politician. Styled Lord Finch until 1730, he was the eldest son of Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham and his second wife Anne Hatton, daughter of Christopher Hatton, 1st Viscount Hatton. His father was a prominent Tory politician who had been one of the few leading Tories to actively support the Hanoverian succession
May 28 Maximilian of Hesse-Kassel a prince of Hesse-Kassel and a Generalfeldzeugmeister, Generalfeldmarschall and finally Reichsgeneralfeldmarschall in the army of the Holy Roman Empire.
Jun 26 Edward Holyoke an early American clergyman, and the 9th President of Harvard College.
Jul 9 Alexis Piron a French epigrammatist and dramatist.
Jul 22 Szymon Czechowicz a prominent Polish painter of the Baroque, considered one of the most accomplished painters of 18th century sacral painting in Poland. He specialized in sublime effigies of painted figures. His establishment of a school of painting gives him a great influence on Polish art
Jul 24 Prince William Duke of Gloucester the son of Princess Anne, later Queen of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1702, and her husband, Prince George, Duke of Cumberland. He was their only child to survive infancy. Styled Duke of Gloucester, he was viewed by contemporaries as a Protestant champion because his birth seemed to cement the Protestant succession established in the "Glorious Revolution" that had deposed his Catholic grandfather James II the previous year
Aug 19 Samuel Richardson an 18th-century English writer and printer. He is best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded , Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady and The History of Sir Charles Grandison. Richardson was an established printer and publisher for most of his life and printed almost 500 different works, including journals and magazines
Sep 1 Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer a Bohemian architect of the Baroque era. He was the fifth son of the German architect Christoph Dientzenhofer and a Bohemian mother and a member of the well known Dientzenhofer family of architects. As an architect he co-operated with his father and with Jan Santini Aichel
Sep 21 Jan Klemens Branicki a Polish nobleman, magnate and Hetman, Field Crown Hetman of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1735 and 1752, and Great Crown Hetman between 1752 and 1771. One of the wealthiest Polish magnates in the 17th century, owner of 12 towns, 257 villages and 17 palaces. He was the last male representative of the Branicki family
Sep 30 Jacques Aubert a French composer and violinist.
Oct 16 Robert Smith (mathematician) an English mathematician and music theorist.
Oct 21 Fyodor Shaklovity a Russian diplomat best known as a staunch adherent of the regent Sophia Alekseyevna, who had promoted him from a regular scrivener to a member of the Boyar Duma and okolnichy. Fyodor Shaklovity was then appointed head of the Streltsy Department after the execution of Ivan Khovansky in the aftermath of the Moscow Uprising of 1682
Oct 22 John V of Portugal a Braganza monarch that ruled as King of Portugal and the Algarves during the first half of the 18th-century. João V raised the prestige of Portugal, which had been in a long decline amongst European courts, to a new and glorious level of prosperity and wealth
Nov 3 Jan Josef Ignác Brentner a Czech composer of the Baroque era.
Nov 21 Jacques I Prince of Monaco count of Thorigny, Prince of Monaco as Jacques I and the fourth Duke of Valentinois from 1731 until 1733.
Nov 24 Frans van Mieris the Younger a Dutch painter.
Dec 4 Gottfried Lengnich an 18th-century historian, lawyer and politician. He became known for writing the 9-volume History of Royal Prussia and for teaching Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of Poland
Dec 23 Joseph Bodin de Boismortier a French baroque composer of instrumental music, cantatas, opéra-ballets, and vocal music. Boismortier was one of the first composers to have no patrons: having obtained a royal license for engraving music in 1724, he made enormous sums of money by publishing his music for sale to the public