Born in 1701

Jan 18 Johann Jakob Moser a German jurist, publicist and researcher, whose work earned him the title "The Father of German Constitutional Law" and whose political commitment to the principles of Liberalism caused him to lose academic positions and spend years as a political prisoner.
Jan 27 Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim a German historian and theologian. He is remembered as Febronius, the pseudonym under which he wrote his 1763 treatise On the State of the Church and the Legitimate Power of the Roman Pontiff which offered Europe the "foremost formulation of the arguments against papal absolutism in Germany"
Jan 28 Charles Marie de La Condamine a French explorer, geographer, and mathematician. He spent ten years in present-day Ecuador measuring the length of a degree latitude at the equator and preparing the first map of the Amazon region based on astronomical observations. Furthermore he was a contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers
Feb 1 Johan Agrell a late German/Swedish baroque composer.
Feb 14 Enrique Flórez a Spanish historian.
Mar 1 Johann Jakob Breitinger a Swiss philologist and author.
Mar 6 Louis-René de Caradeuc de La Chalotais primarily remembered for his role on the so-called "Brittany affair", in which the Breton parliament resisted the authority of the French monarchy. The affair has been seen as a precursor of the French Revolution
Mar 12 Johann Friedrich Cotta (theologian) a German theologian.
Mar 15 Ivan Ivanovich Khovansky a Russian boyar, son of Ivan Nikitich Khovansky, opponent of Peter the Great's reforms.
Mar 18 Niclas Sahlgren a Swedish merchant and philanthropist.
Apr 4 Joseph Haines a 17th-century actor, singer, dancer, guitar player, fortune teller, and author.
Apr 27 Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia from 1730 until his death.
May 14 William Emerson (mathematician) born at Hurworth, near Darlington, where his father, Dudley Emerson, also a mathematician, taught a school. William himself had a small estate in Weardale called Castle Gate situated not far from Eastgate where he would repair to work throughout the Summer on projects as disparate as stonemasonry and watchmaking. Unsuccessful as a teacher, he devoted himself entirely to studious retirement. Possessed of remarkable energy and forthrightness of speech, Emerson published many works which are singularly free from errata
Jun 19 François Rebel a French composer of the Baroque era. Born in Paris, the son of the leading composer Jean-Féry Rebel, he was a child prodigy who became a violinist in the orchestra of the Paris Opera at the age of 13. As a composer he is best known for his close collaboration with François Francoeur
Jul 9 Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux Count of Maurepas a French statesman.
Jul 12 James Kelly (pirate) an English pirate active in the Indian Ocean during the 1690s and was a longtime associate of Captain William Kidd. One of Kidd's earliest crew members, Gilliam was a participant in the mutiny on board the Moacha and the subsequent murder of Captain Edgecomb who was killed in his sleep. After taking command of the East Indiaman, Gilliam and the crew of the Mocha captured several ships in the eastern seas until his arrest after returning to New England with Kidd in 1699. Transported to Great Britain, he was tried at the Old Bailey and found guilty of piracy. While in prison, he wrote A full and true Discovery of all the Robberies, Pyracies, and other Notorious Actions, of that Famous English Pyrate, Capt. James Kelly which included references to the as yet undiscovered Galapagos Islands before his eventual execution on July 12, 1701
Aug 14 Thomas Blackwell (scholar) a classical scholar, historian and "one of the major figures in the Scottish Enlightenment.".
Sep 22 Anna Magdalena Bach an accomplished singer and the second wife of Johann Sebastian Bach.
Oct 15 Marie-Marguerite d'Youville a French Canadian widow who founded the religious order the Order of Sisters of Charity of Montreal, commonly known as the Grey Nuns of Montreal. She was canonized by Pope John-Paul II of the Roman Catholic Church in 1990
Oct 15 Louis Charles Count of Eu a grandson of Louis XIV of France and his Maîtresse-en-titre Françoise-Athénaïs de Montespan. He was a member of the legitimised house of Bourbon du Maine. He was the last surviving member of the house
Oct 18 Charles le Beau a French historical writer.
Oct 22 Maria Amalia of Austria Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Germans, Queen of Bohemia, Electress and Duchess of Bavaria etc. as the spouse of Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor. By birth, she was an Archduchess of Austria as the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor and Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Nov 5 Pietro Longhi a Venetian painter of contemporary genre scenes of life.
Nov 27 Anders Celsius a Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician. He was professor of astronomy at Uppsala University from 1730 to 1744, but traveled from 1732 to 1735 visiting notable observatories in Germany, Italy and France. He founded the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory in 1741, and in 1742 proposed the Celsius temperature scale which bears his name
Dec 15 Juan de Iriarte a Spanish writer, French and English translator in the Royal Chancery, Hellenist and latinist.