Born in 1704

Jan 1 Soame Jenyns an English writer.
Jan 15 Giovanni Salvemini an Italian mathematician and astronomer.
Feb 5 Anne Christine of Sulzbach Princess of Piedmont a princess of the Bavarian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire and first wife of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Piedmont. She died during childbirth at the age of 19
Feb 12 Charles Pinot Duclos a French author and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.
Feb 13 Robert Dodsley an English bookseller, poet, playwright, and miscellaneous writer.
Feb 14 Ivan Betskoy a Russian school reformer who served as Catherine II's advisor on education and President of the Imperial Academy of Arts for thirty years. Perhaps the crowning achievement of his long career was the establishment of Russia's first unified system of public education
Feb 15 Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne a French sculptor and among the greatest French portraitists.
Feb 17 Prince John August of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg a German prince, member of the House of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Feb 17 Józef Pułaski a Polish noble, starost of Warka, deputy to Sejm, one of the creators and members of the Bar Confederation.
Feb 24 Johann Hieronymus Kniphof a German physician and botanist.
Feb 28 Louis Godin a French astronomer and member of the French Academy of Sciences. He worked in Peru, Spain, Portugal and France
Feb 28 Hans Hermann von Katte a Lieutenant of the Prussian Army and close friend of the future Frederick II of Prussia, then the Crown Prince. He was executed by Frederick's father King Frederick William I of Prussia when Frederick plotted to escape from the Kingdom of Prussia to the Kingdom of Great Britain. Some believe that Frederick intended to defect to the service of George II of Great Britain and possibly return to Prussia to depose Frederick William
Mar 17 Alexey Nagayev a Russian hydrographer, cartographer and an admiral. Coming from scanty noble family, he graduated from Petersburg Naval Academy and worked ibidem. During the Seven Years' War Nagayev headed the hydrographic expedition to the Prussian shores. He also compiled the first atlases of the Bering Sea and Baltic Sea. Despite the absence of meridional grid, Nagayev's maps have been used for over fifty years. In 1764-65 Nagayev has been the supreme commander of the Kronstadt port. A bay in the Okhotsk Sea is named after him
Apr 10 Benjamin Heath an English classical scholar and bibliophile.
Apr 17 Andrija Kačić Miošić a Croatian poet and Franciscan monk.
May 7 Carl Heinrich Graun a German composer and tenor singer. Along with Johann Adolph Hasse, he is considered to be the most important German composer of Italian opera of his time
Jun 4 Benjamin Huntsman an English inventor and manufacturer of cast or crucible steel.
Jun 11 Carlos Seixas a Portuguese composer, the son of the cathedral organist, Francisco Vaz and Marcelina Nunes.
Jun 17 John Kay (flying shuttle) the inventor of the flying shuttle, which was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution. He is often confused with his namesake, who built the first "spinning frame"
Jun 22 John Taylor (classical scholar) born at Shrewsbury in Shropshire.
Jun 24 Jean-Baptiste de Boyer Marquis d'Argens a French philosopher and writer.
Jul 5 Jack Broughton an English bare-knuckle boxer. He was the first person to ever codify a set of rules to be used in such contests; prior to this the "rules" that existed were very loosely defined and tended to vary from contest to contest. His seven rules of how boxing would be conducted at his amphitheatre evolved later into the London Prize Ring rules which are widely regarded as the foundation stone of the sport that would become boxing, prior to the development of the Marquess of Queensberry rules in the 1860s
Jul 15 August Gottlieb Spangenberg a German theologian and minister, and a bishop of the Moravian Brethren. As successor of Count Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf, he helped develop international missions, as well as stabilize the theology and organization of the German Moravian Church
Jul 31 Gabriel Cramer a Swiss mathematician, born in Geneva. He was the son of physician Jean Cramer and Anne Mallet Cramer
Aug 11 Karl August von Bergen a German anatomist and botanist.
Aug 13 Alexis Fontaine des Bertins a French mathematician. He was a patron and teacher of Jean-Jacques de Marguerie
Aug 21 Johann Georg Chevalier de Saxe a Saxon Field Marshal and Governor of Dresden.
Sep 3 Joseph de Jussieu a French botanist and explorer, member of the Jussieu family. He introduced the common garden heliotrope to European gardeners
Sep 5 Maurice Quentin de La Tour a French Rococo portraitist who worked primarily with pastels. Among his most famous subjects were Voltaire, Rousseau, Louis XV and Madame de Pompadour
Sep 16 Louis de Jaucourt a French scholar and the most prolific contributor to the Encyclopédie. He wrote about 18,000 articles on subjects including physiology, chemistry, botany, pathology, and political history, or about 25% of the entire encyclopedia, all done voluntarily. In the generations after the Encyclopédie's, mainly due to his aristocratic background, his legacy was largely overshadowed by the more bohemian Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and others, but by the mid-20th century more scholarly attention was being paid to him
Sep 24 Karl August Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont and Commander of the Dutch forces in the War of Austrian Succession.
Sep 29 Johann Friedrich Cartheuser a German physician and naturalist.
Oct 2 František Tůma an important Czech composer of the Baroque era. Born in Kostelec nad Orlici, Bohemia, he lived the greater part of his life in Vienna, first as director of music for Count Franz Ferdinand Kinsky, later filling a similar office for the widow of Emperor Karl He was an important late-baroque composer, organist, gambist and theorbist
Oct 9 Johann Andreas Segner a Hungarian scientist. He was born in the Kingdom of Hungary, in the former Hungarian capital city of Pozsony
Oct 29 John Byng a Royal Navy officer. After joining the navy at the age of thirteen, he participated at the Battle of Cape Passaro in 1718. Over the next thirty years he built up a reputation as a solid naval officer and received promotion to Vice-Admiral in 1747
Nov 1 Paul Daniel Longolius the main editor of volumes 3 through 18 of Johann Heinrich Zedler's Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon from 1733 to 1739, replacing Jacob August Franckenstein, who had edited the first two volumes. His successor was Carl Günther Ludovici
Nov 11 Adriaan van Royen a Dutch botanist. He was a professor at Leiden University and is associated with Carl Linnaeus
Dec 31 Carl Gotthelf Gerlach a German organist, who took over the Leipzig Collegium Musicum from Johann Sebastian Bach between 1737 and 1739.