Died in 1704

Jan 8 Lorenzo Bellini Italian physician and anatomist.
Feb 2 Guillaume de l'Hôpital a French mathematician. His name is firmly associated with l'Hôpital's rule for calculating limits involving indeterminate forms 0/0 and ∞/∞. Although the rule did not originate with l'Hôpital, it appeared in print for the first time in his treatise on the infinitesimal calculus, entitled Analyse des Infiniment Petits pour l'Intelligence des Lignes Courbes. This book was a first systematic exposition of differential calculus. Several editions and translations to other languages were published and it became a model for subsequent treatments of calculus
Feb 23 Georg Muffat a Baroque composer. He is most well known for the remarkably articulate and informative performance directions printed along with his collections of string pieces Florilegium Primum and Florilegium Secundum in 1695 and 1698
Feb 23 Henry Noris an Italian church historian, theologian and Cardinal, of Irish ancestry.
Feb 24 Marc-Antoine Charpentier a French composer of the Baroque era.
Feb 25 Isabella Leonarda an Italian composer from Novara. At the age of 16, she entered the Collegio di Sant'Orsola, an Ursuline convent, where she stayed for the remainder of her life. Leonarda is most renowned for the numerous compositions that she created during her time at the convent, making her one of the most productive woman composers of her time
Mar 1 Joseph Parrocel a French Baroque painter, best known for his paintings and drawings of battle scenes.
Mar 17 Menno van Coehoorn a Dutch soldier and military engineer. He made a number of influential weaponry innovations in siege warfare and fortification techniques. He was also known as the "Dutch Vauban", after his famous French counterpart, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban
Apr 8 Henry Sydney 1st Earl of Romney born in Paris, a son of Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester, of Penshurst Place in Kent, England, and his wife, born Lady Dorothy Percy, a daughter of Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland and sister of Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland.
Apr 8 Hiob Ludolf a German orientalist, and born at Erfurt. Edward Ullendorff rates Ludolf as having "the most illustrious name in Ethiopic scholarship"
Apr 10 William Egon of Fürstenberg a German clergyman who was bishop of Strasbourg.
Apr 12 Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet a French bishop and theologian, renowned for his sermons and other addresses. He has been considered by many to be one of the most brilliant orators of all time and a masterly French stylist
Apr 15 Johannes Hudde a burgomaster of Amsterdam between 1672 – 1703, a mathematician and governor of the Dutch East India Company.
Apr 17 Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve conventionally named the "Gyldenløve War" after him. He was an acknowledged illegitimate son of King Frederick III of Denmark and Norway
May 3 Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber a Bohemian-Austrian composer and violinist. Born in the small Bohemian town of Wartenberg , Biber worked at Graz and Kroměříž before he illegally left his Kremsier employer and settled in Salzburg. He remained there for the rest of his life, publishing much of his music but apparently seldom, if ever, giving concert tours
May 10 Ezéchiel du Mas Comte de Mélac a career soldier in the French army under King Louis XIV and war minister Louvois.
May 13 Louis Bourdaloue a French Jesuit and preacher.
May 24 Laurens de Graaf a Dutch pirate, mercenary, and naval officer in the service of the French colony of Saint-Domingue during the late 17th and early 18th century.
May 30 Emmanuel Lebrecht Prince of Anhalt-Köthen a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Köthen.
Jun 12 Abraham de la Pryme an English antiquary.
Jun 18 Tom Brown (satirist) an English translator and writer of satire, largely forgotten today save for a four-line gibe he wrote concerning Dr John Fell.
Jun 30 John Quelch (pirate) an English pirate who had a lucrative but very brief career of about one year. His chief claim to historical significance is that he was the first person to be tried for piracy outside England under Admiralty Law and thus without a jury. These Admiralty courts had been instituted to tackle the rise of piracy in colonial ports where civil and criminal courts had proved ineffective
Jul 8 Hermann Otto II of Limburg Stirum the son of Adolf Ernst of Limburg Stirum and an imperial Field Marshal.
Jul 14 Sophia Alekseyevna of Russia regent of Russia from 1682 to 1689. She allied herself with a singularly capable courtier and politician, Prince Vasily Galitzine, to install herself during the minority of her brother Ivan V and half-brother Peter Her regency was carried out with a firm and heavy fist. She did not hesitate to use violent tactics to promote her agenda. The activity of this "bogatyr-tsarevna" was all the more extraordinary, as upper-class Muscovite women, confined to the upper-floor terem and veiled and guarded in public, invariably were kept aloof from any open involvement in politics
Jul 17 Pierre-Charles Le Sueur a French fur trader and explorer in North America, recognized as the first known European to explore the Minnesota River valley.
Jul 20 Peregrine White the first known English child born to the Pilgrims in America. In 1620 his parents, William White and his pregnant wife Susanna, with their son Resolved White and two servants came on the historic voyage of the Pilgrim ship Mayflower. Peregrine White was born while the Mayflower lay at anchor in the harbor at Cape Cod. In later life he became a person of note in Plymouth Colony, active in both military and government affairs
Aug 14 Roland Laporte born at Mas Soubeyran in a cottage which has become the property of the Socité de l'Histoire du Protestantisme français, and which contains relics of the hero.
Sep 6 Francesco Provenzale an Italian Baroque composer and teacher. Notably Provenzale was the teacher of famed castrato 'il cavaliere Nicolo Grimaldi '
Sep 8 Francisco Bances Candamo a playwright of the Spanish Golden Age.
Oct 2 Carlo Barberini an Italian Catholic cardinal and member of the Barberini family. He was the grand-nephew of Maffeo Barberini and son of Taddeo Barberini
Oct 8 Mukai Kyorai a Japanese haikai poet, and a close disciple of Matsuo Bashō. A physician's son, he was born in Nagasaki, and connected with Bashō in the 1680s. In 1691 he was one of the compilers, together with Nozawa Bonchō, of the Sarumino Bashō-school collection. After Bashō's death he produced Kyoraishō, a rich source for the ideas of, and anecdotes about, his master
Oct 28 John Locke an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence
Oct 30 Princess Frederica Amalia of Denmark the second daughter of King Frederick III of Denmark and Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp from 1667 to 1695 as the consort of Duke Christian Albert.
Nov 1 John Louis I Prince of Anhalt-Dornburg a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Dornburg.
Nov 4 Andreas Acoluthus a German scholar of orientalism and professor of theology at Breslau. A native of Bernstadt , Lower Silesia, he was the son of Johannes Acoluthus, pastor of Elisabeth and superintendent of the churches and schools of Breslau
Nov 20 Charles Plumier named. Plumier is considered one of the most important of the botanical explorers of his time. He made three botanizing expeditions to the West Indies, which resulted in a massive work Nova Plantarum Americanarum Genera and was appointed botanist to king Louis XIV of France
Dec 27 Hans Albrecht von Barfus a field marshal in the service of Brandenburg and Prussia, serving briefly as prime minister under King Frederick I.