Born in 1706

Jan 7 Johann Heinrich Zedler a bookseller and publisher. His most important achievement was the creation of a German encyclopedia, the Grosses Universal-Lexicon , the largest and most comprehensive German-language encyclopedia developed in the 18th century
Jan 17 Benjamin Franklin one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and in many ways was "the First American". A renowned polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove, among other inventions. He facilitated many civic organizations, including Philadelphia's fire department and a university
Jan 28 John Baskerville best remembered as a printer and type designer.
Feb 11 Nils Rosén von Rosenstein a Swedish physician. He is considered the founder of modern pediatrics, while his work The diseases of children, and their remedies is considered to be "the first modern textbook on the subject"
Mar 4 Lauritz de Thurah a Danish architect and architectural writer. He became the most important Danish architect of the late baroque period. As an architectural writer and historian he made a priceless contribution to the understanding of both Denmark's architectural heritage and building construction in his day
Mar 6 George Pocock a British officer of the Royal Navy.
Mar 12 Johan Pasch a Swedish painter. He was court painter to the Swedish court from 1748 onwards and hovintendent from 1758 onwards. He was the brother of Lorens Pasch the Elder and uncle to Lorens Pasch the Younger and Ulrika Pasch, all three of whom were also painters
Apr 6 Louis de Cahusac a French playwright and librettist, and Freemason, most famous for his work with the composer Jean-Philippe Rameau. He provided the libretti for several of Rameau's operas, namely Les fêtes de l'Hymen et de l'Amour , Zaïs , Naïs , Zoroastre , La naissance d'Osiris , and Anacréon. He is also credited with writing the libretto of Rameau's final work, Les Boréades. Cahusac contributed to the Encyclopédie and was the lover of Marie Fel
Apr 24 Giovanni Battista Martini O.F.M. Conv. , also known as Padre Martini, or Giambattista Martini, was an Italian Conventual Franciscan friar, who was a leading musician and composer of the period
May 17 Andreas Felix von Oefele a German historian and librarian.
May 20 Seth Pomeroy an American gunsmith and soldier from Northampton, Massachusetts. His military service included the French and Indian War and the early stages of the American Revolutionary War. He fought as a private soldier in the Battle of Bunker Hill, but was later appointed a major general in the Massachusetts militia
Jun 15 Johann Joachim Kändler the most important modelleur of the Meissen porcelain manufacture.
Jun 21 John Dollond an English optician, known for his successful optics business and his patenting and commercialization of achromatic doublets.
Aug 11 Princess Marie Auguste of Thurn and Taxis a Regent of Württemberg. She was a member of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis as a daughter of Anselm Franz, 2nd Prince of Thurn and Taxis and his wife Maria Ludovika Anna Franziska, Princess of Lobkowicz. Through her marriage to Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg, she became Duchess consort of Württemberg
Sep 21 Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg the second wife of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Piedmont whom she married in 1724. The mother of the future Victor Amadeus III, she was queen consort of Sardinia from 1730 until her death in 1735
Oct 6 Princess Charlotte Amalie of Denmark a Danish princess, issue of King Frederick IV of Denmark and Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow.
Oct 18 Baldassare Galuppi an Italian composer, born on the island of Burano in the Venetian Republic. He belonged to a generation of composers, including Christoph Willibald Glück, Domenico Scarlatti, and CPE Bach, whose works comprised the transition from Baroque to Classical-era music. He achieved international success, spending periods of his career in Vienna, London and Saint Petersburg, but his main base remained Venice, where he held a succession of leading appointments
Nov 6 William Tans'ur an English hymn-writer, composer of West gallery music, and teacher of music. His output includes approximately a hundred hymn tunes and psalm settings and a Te Deum. His manual A New Musical Grammar was still popular in the nineteenth century
Nov 7 Carlo Cecere an Italian composer of operas, concertos and instrumental duets including, for example, some mandolin duets and a concerto for mandolin. Cecere worked in the transitional period between the Baroque and Classical eras
Nov 8 Johann Ulrich von Cramer an eminent German judge, legal scholar, and Enlightenment philosopher.
Dec 17 Émilie du Châtelet a French mathematician, physicist, and author during the Age of Enlightenment. Her crowning achievement is considered to be her translation and commentary on Isaac Newton's work Principia Mathematica. The translation, published posthumously in 1759, is still considered the standard French translation