1708 in history

1708 events chronologically

Mar 11 Queen Anne withholds Royal Assent from the Scottish Militia Bill, the last time a British monarch vetoes legislation
Mar 23 James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth
Sep 11 Charles XII of Sweden stops his march to conquer Moscow outside Smolensk, marking the turning point in the Great Northern War. The army is defeated nine months later in the Battle of Poltava, and the Swedish Empire ceases to be a major power
Oct 9 Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya

Top 7 most famous people born in 1708

Jan 25 Pompeo Batoni an Italian painter who displayed a solid technical knowledge in his portrait work and in his numerous allegorical and mythological pictures. The high number of foreign visitors travelling throughout Italy and reaching Rome during their Grand Tour, made the artist specialized in portraits. Batoni won international fame largely thanks to his customers, mostly British of noble origin, whom he portrayed, often with famous Italian landscapes in the background. Such "Grand Tour" portraits by Batoni were in British private collections, thus ensuring the genre's popularity in the United Kingdom. One generation later, Sir Joshua Reynolds would take up this tradition and become the leading English portrait painter. Although Batoni was considered the best Italian painter of his time, contemporary chronicles mention of his rivalry with Anton Raphael Mengs
Jan 27 Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia the elder daughter of Emperor Peter I of Russia and Empress Catherine I of Russia. Her sister, Elizabeth of Russia, ruled as Empress between 1741 and 1762. Her son Peter ruled as Emperor in 1762 as Elizabeth's heir. She was the Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp by marriage
Feb 11 Egidio Duni an Italian composer who studied in Naples and worked in Italy, France and London, writing both Italian and French operas.
Sep 8 Antiochus Kantemir a Moldavian-born Russian Enlightenment man of letters and diplomat.
Oct 16 Albrecht von Haller a Swiss anatomist, physiologist, naturalist and poet. A pupil of Herman Boerhaave, he is often referred to as "the father of modern physiology."
Nov 15 William Pitt 1st Earl of Chatham a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century. Historians call him Pitt or Chatham, or William Pitt the Elder to distinguish from his son, William Pitt the Younger, who also was a prime minister. Pitt was also known as The Great Commoner, because of his long-standing refusal to accept a title until 1766
Dec 8 Francis I Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. In 1737, Lorraine became managed by France under terms resulting from the War of the Polish Succession. Francis and House of Lorraine received the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in the peace treaty that ended that war. After taking the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, the return of the ancestral duchy of Lorraine went nominally to his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine , until succession under derivate house alliances resulted in Lorraine's annexation to France in 1766

Top 7 most famous people died in 1708

May 6 François de Laval the first Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec, appointed when he was 36 years old by Pope Alexander VII.
May 11 Jules Hardouin Mansart generally considered to be the apex of French Baroque architecture, representing the power and grandeur of Louis XIV. Hardouin-Mansart was one of the most important European architects of the seventeenth century
Oct 1 John Blow an English Baroque composer and organist, appointed to Westminster Abbey in 1669. His pupils included William Croft, Jeremiah Clarke and Henry Purcell. In 1685 he was named a private musician to James His only stage composition, Venus and Adonis , was thought to influence Henry Purcell's later opera Dido and Aeneas. In 1687 he became choirmaster at St Paul's Cathedral, where many of his pieces were performed. In 1699 he was appointed to the newly created post of Composer to the Chapel Royal
Oct 7 Guru Gobind Singh the last of the ten Sikh Gurus. He was a warrior, poet and philosopher. He succeeded his father Guru Tegh Bahadur as the leader of Sikhs at the young age of nine. He contributed much to Sikhism; notable was his contribution to the continual formalisation of the faith which the first Guru Guru Nanak had founded, as a religion, in the 15th century; and his promotion of the covering of one's hair with a turban. Guru Gobind Singh, the last of the living Sikh Gurus, initiated the Sikh Khalsa in 1699, passing the Guruship of the Sikhs to the Eleventh and Eternal Sikh Guru, the Guru Granth Sahib, the sacred Book of the Sikhs
Oct 11 Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus a German mathematician, physicist, physician, and philosopher. He is considered by some to have been the inventor of European porcelain, an invention long accredited to Johann Friedrich Böttger but others claim porcelain had been made by English manufacturers at an even earlier date
Oct 28 Prince George of Denmark the husband of Queen Anne, who reigned over Great Britain from 1702.
Dec 28 Joseph Pitton de Tournefort a French botanist, notable as the first to make a clear definition of the concept of genus for plants. The botanist Charles Plumier had been his pupil and accompanied him on his voyages