Born in 1708

Jan 25 Pompeo Batoni an Italian painter who displayed a solid technical knowledge in his portrait work and in his numerous allegorical and mythological pictures. The high number of foreign visitors travelling throughout Italy and reaching Rome during their Grand Tour, made the artist specialized in portraits. Batoni won international fame largely thanks to his customers, mostly British of noble origin, whom he portrayed, often with famous Italian landscapes in the background. Such "Grand Tour" portraits by Batoni were in British private collections, thus ensuring the genre's popularity in the United Kingdom. One generation later, Sir Joshua Reynolds would take up this tradition and become the leading English portrait painter. Although Batoni was considered the best Italian painter of his time, contemporary chronicles mention of his rivalry with Anton Raphael Mengs
Jan 26 William Hayes (composer) an English composer, organist, singer and conductor.
Jan 27 Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia the elder daughter of Emperor Peter I of Russia and Empress Catherine I of Russia. Her sister, Elizabeth of Russia, ruled as Empress between 1741 and 1762. Her son Peter ruled as Emperor in 1762 as Elizabeth's heir. She was the Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp by marriage
Feb 8 Václav Jan Kopřiva a Bohemian composer and organist.
Feb 11 Egidio Duni an Italian composer who studied in Naples and worked in Italy, France and London, writing both Italian and French operas.
Feb 23 Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and the father of Queen Charlotte of the United Kingdom.
Feb 25 Felix Benda a Bohemian composer and organist. He was a member of the Benda musical family
Mar 26 Louis Guillouet comte d'Orvilliers a French admiral.
Apr 6 Johann Georg Reutter an Austrian composer. According to Wyn Jones, in his prime he was "the single most influential musician in Vienna"
Apr 23 Friedrich von Hagedorn born at Hamburg, where his father, a man of scientific and literary taste, was Danish ambassador.
Apr 23 Mavra Shuvalova a Russian lady in waiting, socialite and noble and a confidante of Empress Elizabeth of Russia. She was in 1742 married to Count Peter Ivanovich Shuvalov. She played an influential role in Russia during the reign of Elizabeth
May 5 Johann Adolf Scheibe a German-Danish composer and significant critic and theorist of music.
Jun 19 Johann Gottlieb Janitsch a German Baroque composer.
Jul 8 Jan de Witte a Polish military engineer, professional officer and architect of Dutch descent. The designer of, among others, the Dominican church in Lwów and the Carmelite monastery in Berdyczów , he was also the military commandant of the fortress at Kamieniec Podolski
Jul 14 Ivan Iskra a colonel of the Poltava. Iskra belonged to the anti-Hetmanate coalition led by Vasily Kochubey. In late 1707, Kochubey and Iskra delivered a letter to the Tsar's court that accused Ivan Mazepa of initiating talks with Stanislaus Leszczynski of Poland and Charles XII of Sweden
Aug 26 Pierre-Joseph Bernard a French military man and salon poet with the reputation of a rake, the author of several libretti for Rameau. Mme de Pompadour arranged to have him appointed a royal librarian, at the château de Choisy, where she had a little pavilion built for him
Aug 29 Olof von Dalin a Swedish nobleman, poet, historian and courtier. He was an influential literary figure of the Swedish Enlightenment
Sep 8 Antiochus Kantemir a Moldavian-born Russian Enlightenment man of letters and diplomat.
Oct 16 Albrecht von Haller a Swiss anatomist, physiologist, naturalist and poet. A pupil of Herman Boerhaave, he is often referred to as "the father of modern physiology."
Oct 22 Louis Günther II Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt the ruling prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt from 1767 until his death.
Oct 26 Antoine La Vallette a French jesuit clergyman, Superior of the Martinique missions, whose bankruptcy led to the suppression of the Society of Jesus in France.
Oct 27 Jean-Rodolphe Perronet a French architect and structural engineer, known for his many stone arch bridges. His best known work is the Pont de la Concorde
Nov 15 William Pitt 1st Earl of Chatham a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century. Historians call him Pitt or Chatham, or William Pitt the Elder to distinguish from his son, William Pitt the Younger, who also was a prime minister. Pitt was also known as The Great Commoner, because of his long-standing refusal to accept a title until 1766
Dec 8 Francis I Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. In 1737, Lorraine became managed by France under terms resulting from the War of the Polish Succession. Francis and House of Lorraine received the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in the peace treaty that ended that war. After taking the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, the return of the ancestral duchy of Lorraine went nominally to his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine , until succession under derivate house alliances resulted in Lorraine's annexation to France in 1766