Born in 1709

Jan 1 Johann Heinrich Hartmann Bätz a German-Dutch organ builder.
Jan 17 George Lyttelton 1st Baron Lyttelton a British statesman and patron of the arts.
Jan 24 Dom Bédos de Celles a Benedictine monk best known for being a master pipe organ builder.
Feb 7 Charles de Brosses a French writer of the 18th century.
Feb 24 Jacques de Vaucanson a French inventor and artist who was responsible for the creation of impressive and innovative automata and machines such as the first completely automated loom.
Mar 3 Andreas Sigismund Marggraf a German chemist from Berlin, then capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and a pioneer of analytical chemistry. He isolated zinc in 1746 by heating calamine and carbon. Though he was not the first to do so, Marggraf is credited with carefully describing the process and establishing its basic theory. In 1747, Marggraf announced his discovery of sugar in beets and devised a method using alcohol to extract His student Franz Achard later devised an economical industrial method to extract the sugar in its pure form
Mar 10 Georg Wilhelm Steller German botanist, zoologist, physician, and explorer
Mar 14 Gabriel Bonnot de Mably a French philosopher and writer. For a short time he served in the diplomatic corps
Mar 27 William Flackton an 18th-century bookseller, publisher, amateur organist, viola player and composer. He is perhaps best known today for his compositions for the viola
Apr 14 Charles Collé a French dramatist and songwriter.
Apr 30 Christian Gottlieb Ludwig a German physician and botanist born in Brzeg, Silesia. He was the father of Christian Ludwig , a physician/scientist known for his translations of Joseph Priestley's scientific experiments
Jun 15 Louis Count of Clermont a member of the cadet Bourbon-Condé branch of the French royal house. He is known for leading French forces in Germany during the Seven Years' War where he took command in 1758 following the failed French Invasion of Hanover. He was unable to break through Ferdinand of Brunswick's Anglo-German army and captured Hanover. He was Count of Clermont from birth
Jun 24 Théodore Tronchin a Swiss physician.
Jun 25 Francesco Araja an Italian composer who spent 25 years in Russia and wrote at least 14 operas for the Russian Imperial Court including Tsefal i Prokris, the first opera in Russian.
Jul 3 Wilhelmine of Prussia Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth a princess of the German Kingdom of Prussia and composer. She was the eldest daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, and granddaughter of George I of Great Britain. In 1731, she married Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. The baroque buildings and parks built during her reign shape much of the present appearance of the town of Bayreuth, Germany
Jul 5 Étienne de Silhouette a French Controller-General of Finances under Louis XV.
Jul 11 Johan Gottschalk Wallerius a Swedish chemist and mineralogist.
Aug 8 Ernst Ludwig II Duke of Saxe-Meiningen a duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
Aug 8 Tokugawa Ietsugu the seventh shogun of the Tokugawa Dynasty, who ruled from 1713 until his death in 1716. He was the son of Tokugawa Ienobu, thus making him the grandson of Tokugawa Tsunashige, daimyo of Kofu, great-grandson of Tokugawa Iemitsu, great-great grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada, and finally the great-great-great grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu
Aug 8 Johann Georg Gmelin a German naturalist, botanist and geographer.
Aug 8 Hermann Anton Gelinek a German monk and musician.
Aug 10 Jean-Jacques Lefranc Marquis de Pompignan a French man of letters and erudition, who published a considerable output of theatrical work, poems, literary criticism, and polemics; treatises on archeology, nature, travel and many other subjects; and a wide selection of highly regarded translations of the classics and other works from several European languages including English.
Aug 21 Frederick Henry Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt the last owner of the Prussian secundogeniture of Brandenburg-Schwedt. His father was Margrave Philip William; his mother was Charlotte Johanna, a daughter of Prince John George II of Anhalt-Dessau and Princess Henriette Catherine of Nassau
Aug 29 Jean-Baptiste-Louis Gresset a French poet and dramatist, best known for his poem Vert-Vert.
Sep 18 Samuel Johnson an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer. Johnson was a devout Anglican and committed Tory, and has been described as "arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history". He is also the subject of "the most famous single work of biographical art in the whole of literature": James Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson
Sep 24 John Cleland an English novelist best known as the author of Fanny Hill: or, the Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure.
Oct 25 Jan Wagenaar a Dutch historian, known best for his contributions to "Tegenwoordige staat van nederland" and "Vaderlandsche Historie".
Oct 25 Georg Gebel (the younger) a German musician and composer.
Nov 2 Anne Princess Royal and Princess of Orange the second child and eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and his consort, Caroline of Ansbach. She was the spouse of William IV, Prince of Orange, the first hereditary stadtholder of the Netherlands. Princess Anne was the second daughter of a British sovereign to hold the title Princess Royal. She was Regent of the Netherlands from 1751 until her death in 1759, exercising extensive powers on behalf of her son William Because of her English upbringing and family connections, she was known as an Anglophile - despite being unable to convince the Dutch Republic to enter the Seven Years' War on the side of the British
Nov 12 Catherine Cadière an alleged French witch. The trial of Catherine Cadiére in 1731 is one of the most famous of its kind in French history, and have been referred to many times in literature, notably in the pornographic novel Thérèse Philosophe
Nov 22 Franz Benda a Bohemian violinist and composer. He was the brother of Jiří Antonín Benda, and he worked for much of his life at the court of Frederick the Great
Nov 23 Julien Offray de La Mettrie a French physician and philosopher, and one of the earliest of the French materialists of the Enlightenment. He is best known for his work L'homme machine "Machine man". or "The Human Mechanism"
Dec 1 Franz Xaver Richter an Austro-Moravian singer, violinist, composer, conductor and music theoretician who spent most of his life first in Austria and later in Mannheim and in Strasbourg, where he was music director of the cathedral. From 1783 on Haydn’s favourite pupil Ignaz Pleyel was his deputy at the cathedral
Dec 11 Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans Queen consort of Spain as the wife of King Louis I.
Dec 29 Elizabeth of Russia the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death. She led the country into the two major European conflicts of her time: the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War. On the eve of her death, Russia spanned almost 6,250,000 square miles