Died in 1709

Jan 20 François de la Chaise a French Jesuit priest, the father confessor of King Louis XIV of France.
Jan 24 George Rooke an English naval commander. He is known for his service in the wars against France and particularly remembered today for his victory at Vigo Bay and for capturing Gibraltar for England in 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession
Feb 8 Giuseppe Torelli an Italian violist, violinist, teacher, and composer.
Feb 9 François Louis Prince of Conti Prince de Conti, succeeding his brother Louis Armand in 1685. Until this date he used the title of Prince of La Roche-sur-Yon. He was son of Armand de Bourbon and Anne Marie Martinozzi, herself a niece of Cardinal Mazarin. He is the most famous member of the Conti family, a cadet branch of the Princes of Condé. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a prince du sang
Feb 19 Tokugawa Tsunayoshi the fifth shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan. He was the younger brother of Tokugawa Ietsuna, thus making him the son of Tokugawa Iemitsu, the grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu
Mar 9 Ralph Montagu 1st Duke of Montagu an English courtier and diplomat.
Apr 1 Henri Jules Prince of Condé prince de Condé, from 1686 to his death. At the end of his life he suffered from clinical lycanthropy and was considered insane
Apr 2 Giovanni Battista Gaulli an Italian artist working in the High Baroque and early Rococo periods. He is best known for his grand illusionistic vault frescos in the Church of the Gesù in Rome, Italy. His work was influenced by Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Apr 21 George XI of Kartli a Georgian monarch who ruled the Kingdom of Kartli as a Safavid Persian subject from 1676 to 1688 and again from 1703 to 1709. He is best known for his struggle against the Safavids which dominated his weakened kingdom and later as a Safavid commander-in-chief in what is now Afghanistan. Being an Eastern Orthodox Christian, he converted to Islam prior to his appointment as governor of Kandahar
May 30 Levan of Kartli a Georgian royal prince and the fourth son of the king of Kartli Shahnawaz. He was a titular king of Kartli in 1709
Jun 25 Frederick VII Margrave of Baden-Durlach the Margrave of Baden-Durlach from 1677 until his death.
Jun 28 Gustaf Adlerfelt a Swedish historical writer born near Stockholm, brother of Pehr Adlerfelt.
Jun 30 Edward Lhuyd a Welsh naturalist, botanist, linguist, geographer and antiquary. He is also known by the Latinized form of his name, Eduardus Luidius
Jul 17 Robert Bolling a wealthy early American settler planter and merchant. His Mother was Mary Carie, his father was John Bolling born 1615. He was named after his Grandfather Robert Bolling, his Grandmother was Anne Clarke
Aug 4 Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt a princess of Hesse-Darmstadt and wife of the Prince-elector of the Palatinate.
Aug 24 Elisabeth Dorothea of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg a German princess and a member of the House of Wettin in the Ernestine branch of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. By marriage she was Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt and Landgravine-Regent from 1678 to 1688
Aug 31 Andrea Pozzo an Italian Jesuit Brother, Baroque painter and architect, decorator, stage designer, and art theoretician.
Sep 4 Jean-François Regnard equally famous now for the travel diary he kept of a voyage in 1681.
Sep 14 Luis Manuel Fernández de Portocarrero a Spanish prelate, who was cardinal archbishop of Toledo. Uncle of Luis Antonio Tomas de Portocarrero y Moscoso, 5th Count, who became a Grandee of Spain, 2nd class, since 1707 by King Felipe V of Spain
Oct 2 Ivan Mazepa the Cossack Hetman of the Hetmanate in Left-bank Ukraine, from 1687–1708, and Prince of the Holy Roman Empire ad personam 1707-1709. He was famous as a patron of the arts, and also played an important role in the Battle of Poltava where after learning of Peter I's intent to relieve him as acting Hetman of Ukraine and replace him with Alexander Menshikov, he deserted his army and sided with Charles of Sweden. The politicization of this desertion has held a lasting legacy in both Russian and Ukrainian national history
Oct 9 Barbara Palmer 1st Duchess of Cleveland an English courtesan from the Villiers family and perhaps the most notorious of the many mistresses of King Charles II of England, by whom she had five children, all of whom were acknowledged and subsequently ennobled. Her influence was so great that she has been referred to as "The Uncrowned Queen." Her immediate contemporary was Madame de Montespan, mistress of King Louis XIV of France
Oct 17 Grzegorz Antoni Ogiński a Polish-Lithuanian Hetman and governor-general of the Duchy of Samogitia from 1698.
Oct 17 François Mauriceau a French obstetrician.
Oct 28 Dimitry of Rostov a leading opponent of the Caesaropapist reform of the Russian Orthodox church promoted by Feofan Prokopovich. He is representative of the strong Ukrainian influence upon the Russian Orthodox Church at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries
Nov 15 Teofila Ludwika Zasławska a member of the Polish nobility. She was the daughter of Katarzyna Sobieska, who was the sister of Jan III Sobieski, the king of The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Her father was Władysław Dominik Zasławski, a Polish nobleman of Ruthenian stock of the house of Ostrogski, one of the richest magnates in Poland
Dec 7 Meindert Hobbema a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter.
Dec 8 Thomas Corneille a French dramatist.