Born in 1712

Jan 17 John Stanley (composer) an English composer and organist.
Jan 24 Frederick the Great II reigned over the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 until 1786. The third Hohenzollern king, Frederick is best known for his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the Arts and the Enlightenment in Prussia, and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. He became known as Frederick the Great and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz by the Prussian people
Jan 28 Tokugawa Ieshige the ninth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.
Feb 28 Louis-Joseph de Montcalm a French soldier best known as the commander of the forces in North America during the Seven Years' War.
Mar 8 John Fothergill (physician) an English physician, plant collector, philanthropist and Quaker.
Mar 22 Edward Moore (dramatist) born at Abingdon, Berkshire.
Mar 27 Claude Bourgelat a French veterinary surgeon.
May 5 Janusz Aleksander Sanguszko a magnate in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He held the titles of miecznik and Court Marshal of Lithuania. He was not interested in politics, and spent most of his life using the fortunes previous members of the Sanguszko family gathered, spending it on his lavish lifestyle. Indebted, in 1753 he agreed to divide the ordynacja ostrogoska he inherited from his mother, Marianna Lubomirska, among the members and allies of the familia. This decision, known as the transakcja kolbuszowska, was opposed by the enemy of familia, hetman Jan Klemens Branicki, and was finally accepted by the decision of Sejm in 1766
May 13 Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff the son of Joachim Engelke von Bernstorff, Chamberlain to the elector of Hanover.
May 28 Jacques Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay a French economist and intendant of commerce. He is said by some historians of economics to have coined the phrase laissez faire, laissez passer. Together with François Quesnay, whose disciple he was, he was a leader of the Physiocratic School
Jun 14 Sayat-Nova an Armenian poet, musician and ashik, who had compositions in a number of languages.
Jun 21 Luc Urbain de Bouëxic comte de Guichen a French admiral who commanded the French fleets that fought the British at the First Battle of Ushant and the Battle of Martinique during the American War of Independence.
Jun 28 Jean-Jacques Rousseau a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought
Jul 12 Sir Francis Bernard 1st Baronet a British colonial administrator who served as governor of the provinces of New Jersey and Massachusetts Bay. His uncompromising policies and harsh tactics in Massachusetts angered the colonists and were instrumental in the building of broad-based opposition within the province to the rule of Parliament in the events leading to the American Revolution
Jul 18 Karl Friedrich Duke of Saxe-Meiningen a duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
Jul 31 Johann Samuel König a mathematician. Johann Bernoulli instructed both König and Pierre Louis Maupertuis as pupils during the same period. König is remembered largely for his disagreements with Leonhard Euler, concerning the principle of least action. He is also remembered as a tutor to Émilie du Châtelet, one of the few female physicists of the 18th century
Aug 12 Jonas Hanway born at Portsmouth, on the south coast of England.
Aug 26 Tadeusz Franciszek Ogiński a szlachcic from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Oct 1 William Shippen an American physician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was a civic and educational leader who represented Pennsylvania in the Continental Congress
Oct 5 Francesco Guardi a Venetian painter of veduta, a member of the Venetian School. He is considered to be among the last practitioners, along with his brothers, of the classic Venetian school of painting
Oct 14 George Grenville a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. Grenville was born into an influential political family and first entered Parliament in 1741 as an MP for Buckingham. He emerged as one of Cobham's Cubs, a group of young members of Parliament associated with Lord Cobham
Oct 24 Joanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp a princess of the House of Holstein-Gottorp and later the Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst. She is best known as the mother of Catherine the Great of Russia
Oct 30 Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich a German painter and art administrator. In his own works, he was adept at imitating many earlier artists, but never developed a style of his own
Oct 31 Prince Moritz of Anhalt-Dessau a German prince of the House of Ascania from the Anhalt-Dessau branch. He was also a Prussian soldier and Generalfeldmarschall
Nov 24 Ali II ibn Hussein the fourth leader of the Husainid Dynasty and the ruler of Tunisia from 1759 until his death in 1782.
Dec 11 Francesco Algarotti a Venetian polymath, philosopher, poet, essayist, anglophile, art critic and art collector. He was "one of the first Esprits cavaliers of the age," a man of broad knowledge, an expert in Newtonianism, architecture and music and a friend of most of the leading authors of his times: Voltaire, Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d'Argens, Pierre-Louis de Maupertuis and the atheist Julien Offray de La Mettrie
Dec 12 Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine a Lorraine-born Austrian general and soldier, governor and de facto sovereign of the Austrian Netherlands, and sometime duke of Lorraine.
Dec 25 Pietro Chiari an Italian playwright, novelist and librettist.