Born in 1714

Jan 1 Giovanni Battista Mancini an Italian soprano castrato, voice teacher, and author of books on singing.
Jan 1 Kristijonas Donelaitis a Prussian Lithuanian Lutheran pastor and poet. He lived and worked in Lithuania Minor, a territory in the Kingdom of Prussia, that had a sizable minority of ethnic Lithuanians. He wrote the first classic Lithuanian language poem, The Seasons , which became one of the principal works of Lithuanian poetry. The poem, a classic work of Lithuanian literature, depicts everyday life of Lithuanian peasants, their struggle with serfdom, and the annual cycle of life
Jan 5 Mamia III Gurieli Prince of Guria from 1689 to 1714 and King of Imereti in 1701–02, 1711 and 1713.
Jan 6 Percivall Pott an English surgeon, one of the founders of orthopedy, and the first scientist to demonstrate that a cancer may be caused by an environmental carcinogen.
Jan 21 Anna Morandi Manzolini an internationally known anatomist and anatomical wax modeler, as lecturer of anatomical design at the University of Bologna.
Jan 26 Jean-Baptiste Pigalle a French sculptor.
Feb 2 Giovanni Battista Audiffredi an Italian Dominican scholar and scientist.
Feb 2 Gottfried August Homilius a German composer, cantor and organist. He is considered one of the most important church composers of the generation following Bach's, and was the main representative of the empfindsamer style
Feb 5 Johann Gottlieb Gleditsch a German physician and botanist known for pioneer investigations of plant sexuality and reproduction.
Feb 22 Louis-Georges de Bréquigny born at Granville, Manche in Normandy.
Feb 25 René Nicolas Charles Augustin de Maupeou a French lawyer,politician and chancellor of France, whose attempts at reform signalled the failure of enlightened despotism in France. He is best known for his effort to destroy the system of parlements, which were powerful regional courts, in 1770-74. When King Louis XV died in 1774, the parlements were restored and Maupeou lost power
Feb 25 Sir Hyde Parker 5th Baronet a British naval commander.
Feb 26 James Hervey an English clergyman and writer.
Feb 28 Gioacchino Conti an Italian soprano castrato opera singer.
Mar 1 Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Menshikov a son of Prince Menshikov who, at one stage, was betrothed to Grand Duchess Natalya Alexeyevna, a granddaughter of Peter the Great. He later served as an officer in the Russian army
Mar 6 Jean-Baptiste Marie Pierre a French painter, draughtsman and administrator.
Mar 8 Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach a German Classical period musician and composer, the fifth child and second son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach. His second name was given in honor of his godfather Georg Philipp Telemann, a friend of Johann Sebastian Bach
Mar 21 Charles Pratt 1st Earl Camden an English lawyer, judge and Whig politician who was first to hold the title of Earl of Camden. As a lawyer and judge he was a leading proponent of civil liberties, championing the rights of the jury, and limiting the powers of the State in leading cases such as Entick v Carrington
Mar 27 Francesco Antonio Zaccaria an Italian theologian, historian, and prolific writer.
Apr 14 Adam Gib a Scottish religious leader, head of the Antiburgher section of the Scottish Secession Church.
Apr 25 Emer de Vattel a Swiss philosopher, diplomat, and legal expert whose theories laid the foundation of modern international law and political philosophy. He was born in Couvet in Neuchatel, Switzerland in 1714 and died in 1767 of edema. He was largely influenced in his philosophy by Gottfried Leibniz and Christian Wolff and strove to integrate their ideas into the legal and political system. He is most famous for his 1758 work Droit des gens; ou, Principes de la loi naturelle appliqués à la conduite et aux affaires des nations et des souverains. This work was his claim to fame and won him enough prestige to be appointed as a councilor to the court of King Augustus III of Saxony
May 6 Anton Raaff a German tenor from Gelsdorf near Bonn.
May 10 Sophie Charlotte Ackermann a German actress from Berlin.
May 18 Ivan Botsis a Russian admiral and one of the founders of the Imperial Russian Navy under Peter the Great.
May 20 Henry Bathurst 2nd Earl Bathurst a British lawyer and politician. He was Lord Chancellor of Great Britain from 1771 to 1778
Jun 6 Joseph I of Portugal the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 31 July 1750 until his death.
Jun 17 César-François Cassini de Thury a French astronomer and cartographer.
Jul 2 Christoph Willibald Gluck a German composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period. After many years at the Habsburg court at Vienna, Gluck brought about the practical reform of opera's dramaturgical practices that many intellectuals had been campaigning for over the years. With a series of radical new works in the 1760s, among them Orfeo ed Euridice and Alceste, he broke the stranglehold that Metastasian opera seria had enjoyed for much of the century
Jul 12 Mikhail Illarionovich Vorontsov a Russian statesman and diplomat, who laid foundations for the fortunes of the Vorontsov family.
Jul 16 Marc René marquis de Montalembert a French military engineer and writer, known for his work on fortifications.
Jul 17 Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten a German philosopher.
Jul 21 Grand Duchess Natalya Alexeyevna of Russia (1714–1728) a Russian Grand Duchess.
Aug 1 Richard Wilson (painter) an influential British landscape painter, who worked in Britain and Italy. With George Lambert he is recognised as a pioneer in British art of landscape for its own sake and was described in the Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of Wales as the "most distinguished painter Wales has ever produced and the first to appreciate the aesthetic possibilities of his country". In December 1768 Wilson became one of the founder-members of the Royal Academy
Aug 14 Claude Joseph Vernet a French painter. His son, Antoine Charles Horace Vernet, was also a painter
Aug 28 Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick generalissimus of the Army of Russia, and the husband of Anna Leopoldovna, who reigned as regent of Russia for one year.
Aug 29 Princess Friederike Luise of Prussia a daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover and Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach.
Sep 10 Niccolò Jommelli a Neapolitan composer. He was born in Aversa and died in Naples. Along with other composers mainly in the Holy Roman Empire and France, he made important changes to opera and reduced the importance of star singers
Sep 19 Charles Humphreys an American miller and statesman from Haverford, Pennsylvania. He is the son of Daniel Humphreys and Hannah Wynne. He served as a delegate for Pennsylvania to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1776. He voted against the Declaration of Independence, since he believed it would inevitably escalate the Revolutionary War and that conflicted with his Quaker beliefs. He withdrew from the Congress soon afterwards
Sep 24 Alaungpaya a Bamar king of Burma from 1752-60 and the founder of the Konbaung Dynasty. By the time of his death from illness during his campaign in Thailand, this former chief of a small village in Upper Burma had unified Burma, subdued Manipur, conquered Lanna and driven out the French and the English who had given help to the Mon Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom. He also founded Yangon in 1755
Sep 30 Étienne Bonnot de Condillac a French philosopher and epistemologist, who studied in such areas as psychology and the philosophy of the mind.
Oct 16 Giovanni Arduino (geologist) known as the "Father of Italian Geology".
Oct 25 James Burnett Lord Monboddo a Scottish judge, scholar of linguistic evolution, philosopher and deist. He is most famous today as a founder of modern comparative historical linguistics. In 1767 he became a judge in the Court of Session. As such, Burnett adopted an honorary title based on the name of his father's estate and family seat, Monboddo House. Monboddo was one of a number of scholars involved at the time in development of early concepts of evolution. Some credit him with anticipating in principle the idea of natural selection that was developed into a scientific theory by Charles Darwin
Oct 27 Fernando de Silva 12th Duke of Alba a Spanish politician and general.
Nov 18 William Shenstone an English poet and one of the earliest practitioners of landscape gardening through the development of his estate, The Leasowes.
Nov 24 Thomas Zebrowski a Jesuit architect, mathematician, and astronomer. He was instrumental in establishing and funding the Observatory of Vilnius University. Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt was among his students
Dec 18 Nikolaus I Prince Esterházy a Hungarian prince, a member of the famous Esterházy family. His building of palaces, extravagant clothing, and taste for opera and other grand musical productions led to his being given the title "the Magnificent". He is remembered as the principal employer of the composer Joseph Haydn
Dec 19 John Winthrop (educator) the 2nd Hollis Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in Harvard College. He was a distinguished mathematician, physicist and astronomer, born in Boston, Mass. His great-great-grandfather, also named John Winthrop, was founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He graduated in 1732 from Harvard, where, from 1738 until his death he served as professor of mathematics and natural philosophy. Professor Winthrop was one of the foremost men of science in America during the 18th century, and his impact on its early advance in New England was particularly significant. Both Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Thompson probably owed much of their early interest in scientific research to his influence. He also had a decisive influence in the early philosophical education of John Adams, during the latter's time at Harvard. He corresponded regularly with the Royal Society in London—as such, one of the first American intellectuals of his time to be taken seriously in Europe. He was noted for attempting to explain the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 as a scientific—rather than religious—phenomenon, and his application of mathematical computations to earthquake activity following the great quake has formed the basis of the claim made on his behalf as the founder of the science of seismology. Additionally, he observed the transits of Mercury in 1740 and 1761 and journeyed to Newfoundland to observe a transit of Venus. He traveled in a ship provided by the Province of Massachusetts - probably the first scientific expedition ever sent out by any incipient American state
Dec 21 John Bradstreet a British Army officer during King Georges War, the French and Indian War, and Pontiac's Rebellion. He was born in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia to a British Army Lieutenant and an Acadian mother. He also served as the Commodore-Governor for Newfoundland
Dec 23 Ranieri de' Calzabigi an Italian poet and librettist, most famous for his collaboration with the composer Christoph Willibald Gluck on his "reform" operas.
Dec 27 George Whitefield an English Anglican preacher who helped spread the Great Awakening in Britain, and especially in the American colonies.