Born in 1717

Jan 5 William Barrington 2nd Viscount Barrington a British politician best known for his two periods as Secretary at War during Britain's involvement in the Seven Years War and American War of Independence.
Jan 29 Jeffery Amherst 1st Baron Amherst Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst KCB served as an officer in the British Army and as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces.
Feb 2 Ernst Gideon von Laudon an Austrian generalisimo, one of the most successful opponents of the Prussian king Frederick the Great, allegedly lauded by Alexander Suvorov as his teacher. He served the position of military governorship of the Kingdom of Serbia from his capture of Belgrade in 1789 until his death, cooperating with the resistance fighters of Koča Anđelković
Feb 11 William Williams Pantycelyn generally acknowledged as Wales' most famous hymn writer. As a writer of both poetry and prose, he is today considered one of the greatest literary figures of Wales. He was, however, equally distinguished in the world of religion, as one of the key leaders of the 18th century Welsh Methodist revival, along with Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland
Feb 17 Adam Friedrich Oeser a German etcher, painter and sculptor.
Feb 19 David Garrick an English actor, playwright, theatre manager and producer who influenced nearly all aspects of theatrical practice throughout the 18th century and was a pupil and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson. He appeared in a number of amateur theatricals, and with his appearance in the title role of Shakespeare's Richard III audiences and managers began to take notice
Feb 27 Louis des Balbes de Berton de Crillon duc de Mahon the 4th Duke of Crillon and 1st Duke of Mahon. He became a soldier at the age of 16 and served with distinction in the French army before transferring to the army of Spain, which was allied with France for much of the 18th century. By the end of his life he had risen to the highest military rank in Spain and it was said that he had served in 68 engagements. His most famous achievement was the successful invasion of Minorca in 1781, in which he defeated a British garrison and returned the island to Spain, although his efforts the following year to recapture Gibraltar from the British were a notable failure
Apr 9 Georg Matthias Monn an Austrian composer, organist and music teacher whose works were fashioned in the transition from the Baroque to Classical period in music.
Apr 30 David de Gorter a Dutch physician and botanist.
May 13 Maria Theresa the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress
Jun 8 John Collins (Continental Congress) the third Governor of the U.S. state of Rhode Island, born in Newport, the son of Samuel and Elizabeth Collins.
Jun 18 Johann Stamitz a Czech composer and violinist. His two surviving sons, Carl and Anton Stamitz, were scarcely less important composers of the Mannheim school, of which Johann is considered the founding father. His music is stylistically transitional between Baroque and Classical periods
Jun 20 Jacques Saly born in Valenciennes to François Marie Saly and his wife Marie Michelle.
Jun 27 Louis-Guillaume Le Monnier a French natural scientist and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.
Jul 5 Peter III of Portugal became King of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves by the accession of his wife and niece Queen Maria I in 1777, and co-reigned alongside her until his death.
Aug 13 Louis François Prince of Conti a French nobleman, who was the Prince of Conti from 1727 to his death, following his father Louis Armand His mother was Louise Élisabeth de Bourbon, a natural granddaughter of Louis XIV. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince du Sang
Aug 15 Louis Carrogis Carmontelle a French dramatist, painter, architect, set designer and author, and designer of one of the earliest examples of the French landscape garden, Parc Monceau in Paris. He also invented the transparent, an early ancestor of the magic lantern and motion picture, for viewing moving bands of landscape paintings
Aug 27 Francesco Saverio de Zelada a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, born of a Spanish family, who served in the Papal Curia and in the diplomatic service of the Holy See.
Sep 4 Job Orton an English dissenting minister.
Sep 7 Martin Dobrizhoffer an Austrian Roman Catholic missionary and writer.
Sep 11 Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin Swedish astronomer and demographer.
Sep 17 Agui a Manchu noble general for the Qing dynasty. As the only son of Akdun, he was a scion of a noble family who led a number of important Manchu military operations, including several of the "Ten Great Campaigns"
Sep 24 Horace Walpole an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.
Oct 5 Marie Anne de Mailly the youngest of the five famous de Nesle sisters, four of whom would become the mistress of King Louis XV of France.
Nov 1 Princess Anne Thérèse of Savoy a Savoyard princess born in Paris, France. She was the second wife of Charles de Rohan, Prince de Soubise, a military leader and friend of Louis XV
Nov 9 Frederick II Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1756 until his death.
Nov 16 Jean le Rond d'Alembert a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist. Until 1759 he was also co-editor with Denis Diderot of the Encyclopédie. D'Alembert's formula for obtaining solutions to the wave equation is named after him. The wave equation is sometimes referred to as d'Alembert's equation
Nov 20 Grigory Teplov a Russian academic administrator of lowly birth who managed the Petersburg Academy of Sciences and wielded influence over Little Russia in his capacity as the secretary and advisor to Kirill Razumovsky. He was also an amateur musician and printed in 1751 the collection of his songs entitled Idle Hours Away from Work
Nov 25 Alexander Sumarokov a Russian poet and playwright who single-handedly created classical theatre in Russia, thus assisting Mikhail Lomonosov to inaugurate the reign of classicism in Russian literature.
Nov 26 Olof af Acrel a surgeon and physician of Stockholm, who perfected his knowledge by study in foreign countries and introduced many improvements into Swedish practice.
Dec 9 Johann Joachim Winckelmann a German art historian and archaeologist. He was a pioneering Hellenist who first articulated the difference between Greek, Greco-Roman and Roman art. "The prophet and founding hero of modern archaeology", Winckelmann was one of the founders of scientific archaeology and first applied the categories of style on a large, systematic basis to the history of art. Many consider him the father of the discipline of art history. His would be the decisive influence on the rise of the neoclassical movement during the late 18th century. His writings influenced not only a new science of archaeology and art history but Western painting, sculpture, literature and even philosophy. Winckelmann's History of Ancient Art was one of the first books written in German to become a classic of European literature. His subsequent influence on Lessing, Herder, Goethe, Hölderlin, Heine, Nietzsche, George, and Spengler has been provocatively called "the Tyranny of Greece over Germany."
Dec 16 Elizabeth Carter an English poet, classicist, writer and translator, and a member of the Bluestocking Circle.
Dec 20 Charles Gravier comte de Vergennes a French statesman and diplomat. He served as Foreign Minister from 1774 during the reign of Louis XVI, notably during the American War of Independence
Dec 25 Pope Pius VI born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, reigned from 15 February 1775 to his death in 1799.
Dec 28 Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi one of the leading German political economists in the 18th century.