Born in 1721

Jan 2 John Manners Marquess of Granby the eldest son of the 3rd Duke of Rutland. As he did not outlive his father, he was known by his father's subsidiary title, Marquess of Granby. Granby served in the Seven Years' War as overall commander of the British troops on the battlefield and was subsequently rewarded with the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Forces. He was popular with his troops and many public houses are still named after him today
Jan 8 John Frederick Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt the ruling Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt from 1744 to 1767.
Jan 12 Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel a German-Prussian field marshal known for his participation in the Seven Years' War. From 1757 to 1762 he led an Anglo-German army in Western Germany which successfully repelled French attempts to occupy Hanover
Jan 17 Charles Germain de Saint Aubin a French draftsman and embroidery designer to King Louis Published a classic reference on embroidery, L'Art du Brodeur in 1770. In addition to his embroidery designs, he was also known for his drawings and engravings
Jan 17 Countess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste of Sulzbach the eldest granddaughter of the Elector of the Palatinate Charles III Philip, and by her marriage to Elector Palatine Charles IV Theodore, Electress Palatine and later Electress of Bavaria.
Jan 19 Jean-Philippe Baratier a German scholar. A noted child prodigy of the 18th century, he published eleven works and authored a great quantity of unpublished manuscripts
Jan 21 James Murray (Quebec governor) a British soldier, whose lengthy career included service as colonial administrator and governor of the Province of Quebec and later as Governor of Minorca from 1778 to 1782.
Jan 30 Bernardo Bellotto an Italian urban landscape painter or vedutista, and printmaker in etching famous for his vedute of European cities. He was the pupil and nephew of Canaletto and sometimes used the latter's illustrious name, signing himself as Bernardo Canaletto. In Germany and Poland, Bellotto called himself by his uncle's name, Canaletto
Feb 3 Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz a Prussian soldier and one of the greatest German cavalry generals.
Feb 6 Christian Heinrich Heineken a legendary German child prodigy. When he was eight weeks old, he could speak German. He read the Pentateuch at age one, and between the ages of two and three, he read the Old and New Testament in Latin. When he was three years old, he was said to have authored A History of Denmark and recited it when visiting the King of Denmark later the same year. He died at age four of celiac disease
Feb 13 John Reid (British Army officer) a British army general and founder of the chair of music at the University of Edinburgh.
Feb 24 John McKinly an American physician and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware. He was a veteran of the French and Indian War, served in the Delaware General Assembly, was the first elected President of Delaware, and for a time was a member of the Federalist Party
Mar 1 Juan Crespí a Franciscan missionary and explorer of Las Californias. A native of Majorca, Crespí entered the Franciscan order at the age of seventeen. He came to New Spain in 1749, and accompanied explorers Francisco Palóu and Junípero Serra. In 1767 he went to the Baja Peninsula and was placed in charge of the Misión La Purísima Concepción de Cadegomó
Mar 9 Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken wife of the Landgrave of Hessen-Darmstadt and one of the most learned women of her time.
Mar 19 Tobias Smollett a Scottish poet and author. He was best known for his picaresque novels, such as The Adventures of Roderick Random and The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle , which influenced later novelists such as Charles Dickens. George Orwell admired Smollett very much. His novels were amended liberally by printers; a definitive edition of each of his works was edited by O. Brack, to correct variants
Apr 1 Pieter Hellendaal an Anglo-Dutch composer, organist and violinist. He was sometimes distinguished with the suffix "The Elder", after the maturity of his musician son, Pieter Hellendaal the Younger
Apr 11 David Zeisberger a Moravian clergyman and missionary among the Native Americans in the Thirteen Colonies. He established communities of Munsee converts in the valley of the Muskingum River in Ohio; and for a time, near modern-day Amherstburg, Ontario
Apr 19 Roger Sherman an early American lawyer and politician, as well as a Founding Father of the United States. He served as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic. He was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the U.S.: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. Thomas Jefferson said of him: "That is Sherman, of Connecticut, a man who never said a foolish thing in his life."
Apr 24 Johann Kirnberger a musician, composer , and music theorist. Possibly, though not verified, he was a pupil of Johann Sebastian Bach, visiting Leipzig in 1741. According to Ingeborg Allihn, Kirberger played a significant role in the intellectual and cultural exchange between Germany and Poland in the mid-1700s. Between 1741 and 1751 Kirnberger lived and worked in Poland for powerful magnates including Lubomirski, Poninski, and Rzewuski before ending up at the Benedictine Cloister in Lvov. He spent much time collecting Polish national dances and compiled them in his treatise Die Charaktere der Taenze. He became a violinist at the court of Frederick II of Prussia in 1751. He was the music director to the Prussian Princess Anna Amalia from 1758 until his death. Kirnberger greatly admired J.S. Bach, and sought to secure the publication of all of Bach's chorale settings, which finally appeared after Kirnberger's death; see Kirnberger chorale preludes. Many of Bach's manuscripts have been preserved in Kirnberger's library
Apr 26 Prince William Duke of Cumberland the third and youngest son of George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach, and Duke of Cumberland from 1726. He is generally best remembered for his role in putting down the Jacobite Rising at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, which success made him immensely popular throughout Britain. At present, however, he is regularly referred to by the nickname given to him by his English Tory opponents: "Butcher" Cumberland. Despite Culloden, he had a largely unsuccessful military career, and following the Convention of Klosterzeven in 1757, he never held active military command, and switched his attentions to politics and horse racing
May 15 Dmitry Mikhailovich Golitsyn a Russian diplomat from the Golitsyns family. From 1761 to 1792 he was Russian ambassador to Austria
May 21 Pieter Cramer a wealthy Dutch merchant in linen and Spanish wool, remembered as an entomologist. Cramer was the director of the Zealand Society, a scientific society located in Flushing, and a member of Concordia et Libertate, based in Amsterdam. This literary and patriotic society, where Cramer gave lectures on minerals, commissioned and/or financed the publishing of his book De uitlandsche Kapellen, on foreign butterflies, occurring in three parts of the world Asia, Africa and America
Jun 7 Barbara Campanini a famous Italian ballerina, one of the most important ballet dancers of the 18th century.
Jun 19 Johann de Kalb a German-born French officer who served as a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and was killed in action during the Battle of Camden.
Jul 9 Johann Nikolaus Götz a German poet from Worms.
Jul 14 John Douglas (bishop of Salisbury) a Scottish scholar and Anglican bishop.
Jul 20 Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Léry also sometimes written Joseph-Gaspard. He was a military engineer and a political figure in Lower Canada. During the Seven Years' War he proved himself to be an outstanding officer and was one of only a few colonial officers held in high esteem by the Marquis de Montcalm. In recognition of his military service, in 1759 he was made a Chevalier of the Order of Saint Louis. n 1763, after the British Conquest of New France, he and his wife, Louise Martel de Brouage, were the first French Canadian couple to be presented to the English Court, drawing the compliment from King George III that if all Canadian ladies resembled Mme de Léry then he had "indeed made a conquest"
Aug 4 Granville Leveson-Gower 1st Marquess of Stafford a British politician.
Aug 31 George Hervey 2nd Earl of Bristol William Hervey, 2nd Earl of Bristol , the eldest son of John Hervey, 2nd Baron Hervey, by his marriage with Mary , daughter of Nicholas Lepell.
Sep 9 Fredrik Henrik af Chapman a Swedish shipbuilder, scientist and officer in the Swedish navy. He was also manager of the Karlskrona shipyard 1782-1793. Chapman is credited as the first person to apply scientific methods to shipbuilding and is considered to be the first naval architect
Sep 10 Peyton Randolph a planter and public official from the Colony of Virginia. He served as speaker of the Virginia House of Burgesses, chairman of the Virginia Conventions, and the first President of the Continental Congress
Sep 14 Eliphalet Dyer a lawyer, jurist, and statesman from Windham, Connecticut. He was a delegate for Connecticut to many sessions of the Continental Congress
Sep 15 Kazimierz Poniatowski a Polish Szlachcic, podkomorzy wielki koronny , generał wojsk koronnych. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded on August 3, 1744 in Warsaw
Sep 17 Johann Adolf Schlegel a German poet and clergyman.
Sep 19 William Robertson (historian) a Scottish historian, minister in the Church of Scotland, and Principal of the University of Edinburgh. "The thirty years during which presided over the University perhaps represent the highest point in its history."
Oct 19 Joseph de Guignes a French orientalist, sinologist and Turkologist born at Pontoise, the son of Jean Louis de Guignes and Françoise Vaillant. He died at Paris
Nov 9 Mark Akenside an English poet and physician.
Nov 22 Joseph Frederick Wallet DesBarres a cartographer who served in the Seven Years' War, in part, as the aide-de-camp to General James Wolfe. He also created the monumental four volume Atlantic Neptune, which was the most important collection of maps, charts and views of North America published in the eighteenth century. Finally, he was the Governor of Cape Breton Island and Prince Edward Island. Colonel DesBarres is buried in the crypt of George's Church, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Dec 6 Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes a French statesman, minister, and afterwards counsel for the defence of Louis XVI.
Dec 6 James Elphinston a well noted 18th century Scottish educator, orthographer, phonologist and linguistics expert.
Dec 9 Peter Pelham (composer) an English-born American organist, harpsichordist, teacher and composer.
Dec 27 François Hemsterhuis a Dutch writer on aesthetics and moral philosophy.
Dec 29 Madame de Pompadour a member of the French court and was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to her death. She was trained from childhood to be a mistress, and learned her trade well. She took charge of the king’s schedule and was an indispensable aide and advisor, despite her frail health and many political enemies. She secured titles of nobility for herself and her relatives, and built a network of clients and supporters. She paid careful attention not to alienate the Queen, Marie Leszczyńska. She was a major patron of architecture and decorative arts such as porcelain. She was a patron of the philosophes of the Enlightenment, including Voltaire. Hostile critics at the time said she was responsible for the Seven Years' War, and generally tarred her as a malevolent political influence. Historians are more favourable, emphasizing her successes as a patron of the arts and a champion of French pride