Born in 1723

Jan 2 David Ruhnken a Dutch classical scholar of German origin.
Jan 5 Nicole-Reine Lepaute a French astronomer and mathematician. She predicted the return of Halley's Comet, calculated the timing of a solar eclipse and constructed a group of catalogs for the stars. She was a member of the Scientific Academy of Béziers
Jan 11 Prithvi Narayan Shah the first king of the unified Nepal. He is credited for starting the campaign for a unified Nepal, which had been divided and weakened under Malla confederacy. He was the ninth generation descendant of Dravya Shah , the founder of the ruling house of Gorkha. Prithvi Narayan Shah succeeded his father, King Nara Bhupal Shah to the throne of the Gorkha Kingdom in 1743
Jan 12 Samuel Langdon an American Congregational clergyman and educator. After serving as pastor in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, he was appointed president of Harvard University in 1774. He held that post until 1780
Jan 25 La Clairon Clair Josèphe Hippolyte Leris, was born at Condé-sur-l'Escaut, Hainaut, the daughter of an army sergeant.
Jan 27 Charles-Henri-Louis d'Arsac de Ternay a French naval officer. Most active in the Seven Years' War and the War of American Independence, Ternay was the naval commander of a 1762 expedition that successfully captured John's Newfoundland. He was appointed commander of the Marine Royale, French naval forces, as part of the project code named Expédition Particulière that brought French troops to American soil in 1780. He died aboard ship off Newport, Rhode Island
Jan 30 Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein a German-born doctor, physicist and engineer. From 1753 to his death he was a professor in Copenhagen, and became the rector of University of Copenhagen four times
Jan 31 Petronella Johanna de Timmerman a Dutch poet and scientist.
Feb 3 Count Karl Leopold von Schlieben Royal Prussian Minister of War, between 1769 and 1772.
Feb 5 John Witherspoon a Scots Presbyterian minister and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Jersey. As president of the College of New Jersey , he trained many leaders of the early nation and was an active clergyman and the only college president to sign the Declaration
Feb 13 Antoine Louis a French surgeon and physiologist who was born in Metz.
Feb 17 Tobias Mayer a German astronomer famous for his studies of the Moon.
Feb 21 Louis-Pierre Anquetil a French historian.
Feb 23 William Chambers (architect) a Scottish-Swedish architect, based in London. Among his best-known works are Somerset House, London, and the pagoda at Kew. Chambers was a founder member of the Royal Academy
Feb 23 Richard Price a Welsh moral philosopher and nonconformist preacher. He was also a political pamphleteer, active in radical, republican, and liberal causes such as the American Revolution. He was well-connected and fostered communication between a large number of people, including Founding Fathers of the United States
Mar 5 Princess Mary of Great Britain the second-youngest daughter of King George II and Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel as the wife of Landgrve Frederick II.
Mar 22 Charles Carroll (barrister) an American lawyer and statesman from Annapolis, Maryland. He was the builder of the Baltimore Colonial home Mount Clare , and a delegate to the Second Continental Congress in 1776 and 1777
Mar 27 James Madison Sr. a prominent Virginia planter, who served as a colonel in the militia during the American Revolutionary War. He inherited Mount Pleasant, later known as Montpelier, a large tobacco plantation in Orange County, Virginia and, with the acquisition of more property, had 5,000 acres and became the largest landowner in the county. He was father to U.S. President James Madison, who inherited what he called Montpelier
Mar 31 Frederick V of Denmark king of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein from 1746 until his death, son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. "Prudentia et Constantia" was the motto he chose for his reign
Apr 20 Cornelius Harnett an American merchant, farmer, and statesman from Wilmington, North Carolina. He was a leading American Revolutionary in the Cape Fear region, and a delegate for North Carolina in the Continental Congress from 1777 to 1779
Apr 25 Giovanni Marco Rutini an Italian composer.
Apr 30 Mathurin Jacques Brisson a French zoologist and natural philosopher.
May 20 Francisco de Saldanha da Gama the third cardinal patriarch of Lisbon.
Jun 3 Giovanni Antonio Scopoli a Tyrolean physician and naturalist. His biographer Otto Guglia named him the "first anational European" and the "Linnaeus of the Austrian Empire"
Jun 11 Johann Georg Palitzsch a German astronomer who became famous for recovering Comet 1P/Halley on Christmas Day, 1758. The periodic nature of this comet had been deduced by its namesake Edmond Halley in 1705, but Halley had died before seeing if his prediction would come true
Jun 16 Adam Smith a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment, Smith is best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments , and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. Smith is cited as the "father of modern economics" and is still among the most influential thinkers in the field of economics today
Jun 20 Adam Ferguson a Scottish philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment. Ferguson was sympathetic to traditional societies, such as the Highlands, for producing courage and loyalty. He criticized commercial society as making men weak, dishonourable and unconcerned for their community. Ferguson has been called "the father of modern sociology." His most well known work is his Essay on the History of Civil Society
Jun 20 Theophilus Lindsey an English theologian and clergyman who founded the first avowedly Unitarian congregation in the country, at Essex Street Chapel.
Jul 1 Pedro Rodríguez Conde de Campomanes born at Santa Eulalia de Sorribia, in Asturias.
Jul 5 Philip II Count of Schaumburg-Lippe a ruler of the counties of Lippe-Alverdissen and Schaumburg-Lippe.
Jul 10 William Blackstone an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century. He is most noted for writing the Commentaries on the Laws of England. Born into a middle-class family in London, Blackstone was educated at Charterhouse School before matriculating at Pembroke College, Oxford in 1738. After switching to and completing a Bachelor of Civil Law degree, he was made a Fellow of All Souls, Oxford on 2 November 1743, admitted to Middle Temple, and called to the Bar there in 1746. Following a slow start to his career as a barrister, Blackstone became heavily involved in university administration, becoming accountant, treasurer and bursar on 28 November 1746 and Senior Bursar in 1750. Blackstone is considered responsible for completing the Codrington Library and Warton Building, and simplifying the complex accounting system used by the college. On 3 July 1753 he formally gave up his practice as a barrister and instead embarked on a series of lectures on English law, the first of their kind. These were massively successful, earning him a total of £61,000 in 2014 terms, and led to the publication of An Analysis of the Laws of England in 1756, which repeatedly sold out and was used to preface his later works
Jul 11 Landgravine Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt a consort of Baden, a dilettante artist, scientist, collector and salonist.
Jul 11 Jean-François Marmontel a French historian and writer, a member of the Encyclopediste movement.
Jul 16 Joshua Reynolds an influential eighteenth-century English painter, specialising in portraits. He promoted the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. He was a founder and first president of the Royal Academy, and was knighted by George III in 1769
Sep 7 Jacques Pierre Abbatucci a Corsican who became an officer in the army of Genoese Corsica, ancien regime France and the First French Republic.
Sep 13 François Joseph Paul de Grasse a French admiral. He is best known for his command of the French fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake, which led directly to the British surrender at Yorktown
Oct 1 Georg Rudolf Boehmer a German botanist and physician born in Liegnitz.
Oct 4 Nikolaus Poda von Neuhaus an Austrian entomologist born in Vienna.
Nov 8 John Byron Vice Admiral The Hon. John Byron, RN was a Royal Navy officer. He was known as Foul-weather Jack because of his frequent encounters with bad weather at sea
Nov 9 Anna Amalia Abbess of Quedlinburg Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg. She was one of ten surviving children of King Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover
Nov 30 William Livingston a signer of the United States Constitution.
Dec 18 Friedrich Karl von Moser a German jurist, state journalist and a politician.
Dec 19 Susanne von Klettenberg a German abbess and writer. She was a friend of Katharina Elisabeth Goethe, the mother of writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Klettenberg corresponded with Goethe, and he shaped a character, "Beautiful Soul," after her in his novel Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship
Dec 22 Carl Friedrich Abel a German composer of the Classical era. He was a renowned player of the viola da gamba, and composed important music for that instrument
Dec 26 Friedrich Melchior Baron von Grimm a German-born French-language journalist, art critic, diplomat and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers. In 1765 Grimm wrote Poème lyrique, an influential article for the Encyclopédie on lyric and opera librettos. Like Christoph Willibald Gluck Grimm became interested in opera reform. According to Martin Fontius, a German literary theorist, "sooner or later a book entitled The Aestatic ideas of Grimm will have to be written