Died in 1723

Jan 1 Louis de Courcillon a French churchman and grammarian, best known for being the first to describe the nasal vowels in the French language. He was a younger brother of Philippe de Courcillon de Dangeau
Feb 2 Antonio Maria Valsalva an Italian anatomist born in Imola. His research focused on the anatomy of the ears. He coined the term Eustachian tube and he described the aortic sinuses of Valsalva in his writings, published posthumously in 1740. His name is associated with the Valsalva antrum of the ear and the Valsalva maneuver, which is used as a test of circulatory function. Anatomical structures bearing his name are Valsalva’s muscle and taeniae Valsalvae
Feb 25 Christopher Wren one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history. He was accorded responsibility for rebuilding 52 churches in the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, including his masterpiece, Paul's Cathedral, on Ludgate Hill, completed in 1710
Feb 26 Thomas d'Urfey an English writer and wit. He composed plays, songs, and poetry, in addition to writing jokes. He was an important innovator and contributor in the evolution of the Ballad opera
Mar 12 Anne Christine of Sulzbach Princess of Piedmont a princess of the Bavarian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire and first wife of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Piedmont. She died during childbirth at the age of 19
Mar 15 Johann Christian Günther a German poet from Striegau in Lower Silesia. After attending the gymnasium at Schweidnitz, he was sent in 1715 by his father, a country doctor, to study medicine at Wittenberg; but he was idle and dissipated, had no taste for the profession chosen for him, and came to a complete rupture with his family. In 1717 he went to Leipzig, where he was befriended by Johann Burkhard Mencke , who recognized his genius; and there he published a poem on the peace of Passarowitz which acquired him reputation. A recommendation from Mencke to Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, king of Poland, proved worse than useless, as Günther appeared at the audience drunk. From that time he led an unsettled and dissipated life, sinking ever deeper into the slough of misery, until he died at Jena on March 15, 1723, when only in his 28th year. Goethe pronounces Günther to have been a poet in the fullest sense of the term. His lyric poems as a whole give evidence of deep and lively sensibility, fine imagination, clever wit, and a true ear for melody and rhythm; but an air of cynicism is more or less present in most of them, and dull or vulgar witticisms are not infrequently found side by side with the purest inspirations of his genius
Mar 31 Edward Hyde 3rd Earl of Clarendon perhaps best known for the claims of his cross-dressing while in office.
Apr 4 Atanazy Miączyński a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman and politician, Treasurer of the Crown Court from 1689. He was voivode of Volhynia from 1713 and Starosta of Krzepice from 1677 and Lutsk from 1681. He was made a Count of the Holy Roman Empire in 1683
Apr 5 Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach an Austrian architect, sculptor, and architectural historian whose Baroque architecture profoundly influenced and shaped the tastes of the Habsburg Empire. His influential book A Plan of Civil and Historical Architecture was one of the first and most popular comparative studies of world architecture. His major works include Schönbrunn Palace, Karlskirche, and the Austrian National Library in Vienna, and Schloss Klessheim, Holy Trinity Church, and the Collegiate Church in Salzburg
Apr 11 John Robinson (bishop of London) an English diplomat and prelate.
Apr 24 Abraham Davel a soldier and patriot of Vaud.
May 11 Jean Galbert de Campistron a French dramatist.
Jun 12 Hafise Kadınefendi a consort to Ottoman Sultan Mustafa II and the mother of Şehzade Mehmed, Șehzade Ahmed, Șehzade Murad, Șehzade Selim of the Ottoman Empire.
Jul 14 Claude Fleury a French ecclesiastical historian.
Jul 26 Robert Bertie 1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven a British statesman and nobleman.
Aug 10 Guillaume Dubois a French cardinal and statesman.
Aug 16 Niels Jonsson Stromberg af Clastorp a Swedish soldier and Governor-General of Swedish Estonia from 1706 to 1709.
Aug 17 Joseph Bingham an English scholar and divine, was born at Wakefield in Yorkshire.
Aug 21 Dimitrie Cantemir twice Prince of Moldavia. He was also a prolific man of letters – philosopher, historian, composer, musicologist, linguist, ethnographer, and geographer
Aug 23 Jean-Antoine de Mesmes a Parisian magistrate and member of the Académie française.
Aug 23 Increase Mather a major figure in the early history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay. He was a Puritan minister who was involved with the government of the colony, the administration of Harvard College, and most notoriously, the Salem witch trials. He was the son of Richard Mather, and the father of Cotton Mather, both influential Puritan ministers
Aug 26 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek a Dutch tradesman and scientist. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist. He is best known for his work on the improvement of the microscope and for his contributions towards the establishment of microbiology
Oct 10 William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper an English politician who became the first Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. Cowper was the son of Sir William Cowper, 2nd Baronet, of Ratling Court, Kent, a Whig member of parliament of some mark in the two last Stuart reigns. Educated at St Albans School, he was called to the bar in 1688
Oct 13 Praskovia Saltykova the tsaritsa of Russia as the only wife of Ivan V of Russia. She was the mother of Empress Anna of Russia. She played an important part as the most senior female of the Russian court in 1698–1712
Oct 19 Godfrey Kneller the leading portrait painter in England during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and was court painter to English and British monarchs from Charles II to George His major works include The Chinese Convert ; a series of four portraits of Isaac Newton painted at various junctures of the latter's life; a series of ten reigning European monarchs, including King Louis XIV of France; over 40 "Kit-cat portraits" of members of the Kit-Cat Club; and ten "beauties" of the court of William III, to match a similar series of ten beauties of the court of Charles II painted by his predecessor as court painter, Sir Peter Lely.
Oct 31 Cosimo III de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany the penultimate Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany. He reigned from 1670 to 1723, and was the elder son of Grand Duke Ferdinando Cosimo's 53-year-long reign, the longest in Tuscan history, was marked by a series of ultra-reactionary laws which regulated prostitution and banned May celebrations. His reign also witnessed Tuscany's deterioration to previously unknown economic lows. He was succeeded by his elder surviving son, Gian Gastone, when he died, in 1723
Nov 12 Joseph Clemens of Bavaria a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty of Bavaria and Archbishop-Elector of Cologne from 1688 to 1723.
Nov 19 Antoine Nompar de Caumont a French courtier and soldier. He was the only love interest of the "greatest heiress in Europe", Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier, cousin of Louis XIV
Nov 25 David-Augustin de Brueys a French theologian and dramatist. He was born in Aix-en-Provence. His family was Calvinist, and he studied theology. After writing a critique of Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet's work, he was in turn converted to Catholicism by Bossuet, and later became a priest
Dec 1 Susanna Centlivre an English poet, actress, and "the most successful female playwright of the eighteenth century". During a long career at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, she became known as the second woman of the English stage after Aphra Behn. Many actors and actresses of the 18th and 19th centuries won fame through their performances of characters in her celebrated plays. Perhaps the best known of these was David Garrick, who chose to end his acting career as Don Felix in The Wonder, a role that had brought him critical acclaim
Dec 2 Philippe II Duke of Orléans a member of the royal family of France and served as Regent of the Kingdom from 1715 to 1723. Born at his father's palace at Saint-Cloud, he was known from birth under the title of Duke of Chartres. His father was Louis XIV's younger brother Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, known as Monsieur; his mother was Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
Dec 7 Jan Santini Aichel a Czech architect of Italian descent, whose major works represent the unique Baroque Gothic style - the special combination of the Baroque and Gothic styles.
Dec 20 Augustus Quirinus Rivinus also known as August Bachmann or Q. Bachmann, was a German physician and botanist who helped to develop better ways of classifying plants