Born in 1724

Jan 7 Wichard Joachim Heinrich von Möllendorf a Generalfeldmarschall of the Kingdom of Prussia.
Jan 12 Frances Brooke an English novelist, essayist, playwright and translator.
Jan 19 Dai Zhen a prominent Chinese scholar of the Qing dynasty from Xiuning, Anhui. A versatile scholar, he made great contributions to mathematics, geography, phonology and philosophy. His philosophical and philological critiques of Neo-Confucianism continue to be influential
Jan 20 Philippe Henri marquis de Ségur a marshal of France.
Jan 28 Nathanael Matthaeus von Wolf a German botanist, physician, and astronomer.
Feb 15 Peter von Biron the last Duke of Courland from 1769 to 1795.
Feb 26 Gottfried Heinrich Bach the firstborn son of Johann Sebastian Bach by his second wife Anna Magdalena Wilcke.
Feb 27 Frederick Michael Count Palatine of Zweibrücken a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty. He was the son of Christian III of Palatinate-Zweibrücken and Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken and a member of the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach. He was the father of the Bavarian King Maximilian I Joseph
Feb 28 George Townshend 1st Marquess Townshend a British soldier and politician. After serving at the Battle of Dettingen during the War of the Austrian Succession and the Battle of Culloden during the Jacobite Rising, Townshend took command of the British forces for the closing stages of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham during the Seven Years' War. He went on to be Lord Lieutenant of Ireland or Viceroy where he introduced measures aimed at increasing the size of Irish regiments, reducing corruption in Ireland and improving the Irish economy. In cooperation with Prime Minister North in London he imposed much greater British control over Ireland. He also served as Master-General of the Ordnance, first in the North Ministry and then in the Fox–North Coalition
Feb 28 Joseph Bernard de Chabert a French sailor, geographer and astronomer.
Feb 29 Eva Marie Veigel a dancer and the wife of actor David Garrick.
Mar 6 Henry Laurens an American merchant and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary War. A delegate to the Second Continental Congress, Laurens succeeded John Hancock as President of the Congress. He was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation and President of the Continental Congress when the Articles were passed on November 15, 1777
Mar 8 Ernest Frederick Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
Mar 20 Duncan Ban MacIntyre one of the most renowned of Scottish Gaelic poets and formed an integral part of one of the golden ages of Gaelic poetry in Scotland during the 18th century. He is best known for his poem about Beinn Dorain; "Moladh Beinn Dòbhrain" :
Mar 27 Jane Colden an American botanist,:53-4 described as the "first botanist of her sex in her country" by Asa Gray in 1843. Although not acknowledged in botanical publications, she wrote a number of letters resulting in botanist John Ellis writing to Carl Linnaeus of her work applying the Linnaean system of plant identification to American flora, "she deserves to be celebrated".:54 Contemporary scholarship maintains that she was the first female botanist working in America. She was regarded as a respected botanist by many prominent botanists such as: John Bartram, Peter Collinson, Alexander Garden, and Carolus Linnaeus. Colden is most famous for her manuscript which remains titleless, in which she describes the flora of the New York area, and draws ink drawings of 340 different species of them
Apr 12 Lyman Hall a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Georgia. Hall County is named after him
Apr 14 Gabriel de Saint-Aubin a French draftsman, printmaker, etcher and painter.
Apr 15 Frederick IV Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.
Apr 22 Immanuel Kant widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to have a major influence in contemporary thought, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics
May 5 Princess Bernardina Christina Sophia of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach a Princess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach by birth and Princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt by marriage.
May 7 Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser an Austrian field marshal during the French Revolutionary Wars. Although he fought in the Seven Years' War, the War of the Bavarian Succession, and mounted several successful campaigns in the Rhineland in the initial years of the French Revolutionary Wars, he is probably most remembered for his unsuccessful operations against Napoleon Bonaparte during the 1796 campaign in Italy
May 10 Johan Zoutman a Dutch naval figure and Rear Admiral who fought at the Battle of Dogger Bank in the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. Zoutman also fought in the American Revolutionary War
May 18 Magtymguly Pyragy a Turkmen spiritual leader and philosophical poet who made significant efforts to secure independence and autonomy for his people in the 18th century.
May 19 Augustus Hervey 3rd Earl of Bristol a British admiral and politician.
May 22 Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne a Breton-born French explorer who made important discoveries in the south Indian Ocean, in Tasmania and in New Zealand. Du Fresne was killed by Maori in 1772
Jun 7 Franz Anton Maulbertsch an Austrian painter and engraver, one of the most renowned exponents of roccoco painting in the German region.
Jun 8 John Smeaton an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses. He was also a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer, and often regarded as the "father of civil engineering"
Jun 13 Pedro Correia Garção a Portuguese lyric poet.
Jun 13 Georges-Louis Le Sage most known for his theory of gravitation, for his invention of an electric telegraph and his anticipation of the kinetic theory of gases. Furthermore he was a contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers
Jun 15 Countess Palatine Maria Franziska of Sulzbach the daughter of Joseph Karl, Count Palatine of Sulzbach and Countess Palatine Elizabeth of Neuburg. She married Frederick, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld on 6 February 1746
Jun 30 Johann Julius Walbaum a physician, naturalist and taxonomist. He was the first to describe many previously unknown species from remote parts of the globe, such as the Great Barracuda , the Chum salmon from the Kamchatka River in Siberia, and the curimatá-pacú from the São Francisco River in Brazil. He was also the first to observe gloves as a preventative against infection in medical surgery. In 1758, the gloves he observed were made from the cecum of the sheep, rather than rubber, which had not yet been discovered
Jul 2 Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock a German poet. His best known work is his epic poem Der Messias. His service to German literature was to open it up to exploration outside of French models
Jul 6 Johann Nepomuk Karl Prince of Liechtenstein the Prince of Liechtenstein between 1732 and 1748. He was the son of Johann Josef Anton
Jul 10 James Hamilton 6th Duke of Hamilton a Scottish peer.
Jul 18 Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria a German composer, singer, harpsichordist and patron, known particularly for her operas Il trionfo della fedeltà and Talestri, regina delle amazoni. She was also the Regent of Saxony in 1763-1768. Baptised Maria Antonia Walpurgis Symphorosa, she was known as Maria Antonia
Jul 31 Noël François de Wailly a French grammarian and lexicographer.
Aug 23 Abraham Yates Jr. an American lawyer and civil servant from Albany, New York.
Aug 25 George Stubbs an English painter, best known for his paintings of horses.
Aug 27 John Joachim Zubly a Swiss-born American pastor, planter, and statesman during the American Revolution. Although a delegate for Georgia to the Continental Congress in 1775, he resisted independence from Great Britain and became a Loyalist
Aug 29 Giovanni Battista Casti an Italian poet, satirist, and author of comic opera librettos, born in Acquapendente. He entered the priesthood after studying at the seminary of Montefiascone and became a canon in the cathedral of his native place, but gave up his chance of church preferment to satisfy his restless spirit by visiting most of the capitals of Europe. In 1784, after the death of Metastasio , he failed to be appointed Poeta Cesario, or poet laureate of Austria, and he left Austria in 1796. He spent the rest of his life in Paris, where he died in 1803. Casti is best known as the author of the Novelle galanti, and of Gli Animali parlanti, a poetical allegory, over which he spent eight years , which excited so much interest that it was translated into French, German and Spanish, and into English, in S. Rose's Court and Parliament of Beasts. Written during the time of the Revolution in France, it was intended to exhibit the feelings and hopes of the people and the defects and absurdities of various political systems. Some of Goya's print series The Disasters of War drew from the Spanish translation of 1813. The Novelle Galanti is a series of poetical tales, in the ottava rima metre largely used by Italian poets for that class of compositions. One merit of these poems is in the harmony and purity of the style, and the liveliness and sarcastic power of many passages
Sep 3 Guy Carleton 1st Baron Dorchester an Anglo-Irish soldier and administrator. He twice served as Governor of the Province of Quebec, from 1768 to 1778, concurrently serving as Governor General of British North America in that time, and again from 1785 to 1795. The title Baron Dorchester was created on 21 August 1786
Sep 8 Nikita Akinfiyevich Demidov a Russian industrialist and arts patron.
Sep 11 Johann Bernhard Basedow a German educational reformer, teacher and writer. He founded the Philanthropinum, a short-lived but influential progressive school in Dessau, and was the author of "Elementarwerk", a popular illustrated textbook for children
Sep 27 Anton Friedrich Büsching a German geographer, historian, educator and theologian. His Erdbeschreibung was the first geographical work of any scientific merit. He also did significant work on behalf of education
Oct 1 Giovanni Battista Cirri an Italian cellist and composer in the 18th century.
Oct 17 Johann Siegfried Hufnagel a German parson and entomologist.
Oct 28 Louis-Philippe de Vaudreuil second in command of the French Navy during the American Revolutionary War.
Oct 31 Christopher Anstey an English writer and poet.
Nov 19 Jacobus Buys a Dutch painter and engraver.
Nov 24 Maria Amalia of Saxony a princess from the House of Wettin, the daughter of Augustus III of Poland and the wife of Charles III of Spain; she was the Queen consort of Naples and Sicily from 1738 till 1759 and then Queen consort of Spain from 1759 until her death in 1760. The mother of thirteen children, she enjoyed a loving relationship with her husband. A popular consort, she oversaw the construction of the Caserta Palace outside Naples as well as various other projects in her husband's domains. Moving to Spain in 1759, she then set about the improvements to the Royal Palace of Madrid but died of tuberculosis before its completion. Maria Amalia was politically active and openly participated in state affairs in both Naples and Spain