Born in 1725

Jan 15 Pyotr Rumyantsev one of the foremost Russian generals of the 18th century. He governed Little Russia in the name of Empress Catherine the Great from the abolition of the Cossack Hetmanate in 1764 until Catherine's death 32 years later. Monuments to his victories include Kagul Obelisk in Tsarskoe Selo , Rumyantsev Obelisk on Basil Island , and a galaxy of Derzhavin's odes
Jan 25 Antoine Court de Gébelin a former Protestant pastor, born at Nîmes, who initiated the interpretation of the Tarot as an arcane repository of timeless esoteric wisdom in 1781.
Feb 4 Dru Drury a British entomologist.
Feb 5 James Otis Jr. a lawyer in colonial Massachusetts, a member of the Massachusetts provincial assembly, and an early advocate of the Patriot views against British policy that led to the American Revolution. His catchphrase "Taxation without representation is tyranny" became the basic Patriot position
Feb 21 Johann Jacob Tischbein a German painter of the Tischbein family, known as the Lübecker Tischbein.
Feb 25 Karl Wilhelm Ramler a German poet.
Feb 26 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot a French inventor. He is known to have built the first working self-propelled mechanical vehicle, the world's first automobile. This claim is disputed by some sources, however, which suggest that Ferdinand Verbiest, as a member of a Jesuit mission in China, may have been the first to build, around 1672, a steam-powered vehicle but that was too small to carry a driver or passengers
Mar 6 Henry Benedict Stuart a Roman Catholic Cardinal, as well as the fourth and final Jacobite heir to claim the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland publicly. Unlike his father, James Francis Edward Stuart, and brother, Charles Edward Stuart, Henry made no effort to seize the throne. After Charles's death in January 1788 the Papacy did not recognise Henry as the lawful ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland, but referred to him as the Cardinal Duke of York
Mar 17 Lachlan McIntosh a British-born American military and political leader during the American Revolution and the early United States. In a 1777 duel, he fatally shot Button Gwinnett, a signer of the Declaration of Independence
Mar 20 Abdul Hamid I the 27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was the son of sultan Ahmed III and succeeded his brother Mustafa III on 21 January 1774. He was born in Constantinople. His mother was Râbi'a Sharmi Sultana
Mar 24 Thomas Cushing an American lawyer, merchant, and statesman from Boston, Massachusetts. Active in Boston politics, he represented the city in the provincial assembly from 1761 to its dissolution in 1774, serving as the lower house's speaker for most of those years. Because of his role as speaker, his signature was affixed to many documents protesting British policies, leading officials in London to consider him a dangerous radical. He engaged in extended communications with Benjamin Franklin who at times lobbied on behalf of the legislature's interests in London, seeking ways to reduce the rising tensions of the American Revolution
Mar 24 Samuel Ashe (North Carolina) the ninth Governor of the U.S. State of North Carolina from 1795 to 1798
Mar 28 Andrew Kippis an English nonconformist clergyman and biographer.
Apr 2 Giacomo Casanova an Italian adventurer and author from the Republic of Venice. His autobiography, Histoire de ma vie , is regarded as one of the most authentic sources of the customs and norms of European social life during the 18th century
Apr 4 Sir William Green 1st Baronet an officer in the British Army. After receiving a private education in Aberdeen, Scotland and a military education at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich, England, he was appointed as a practitioner engineer in 1743. Green served on the European continent until 1752, after which he was in Canada. There, he continued to advance through both the ordinary military and engineering ranks. Following his return to England, Green was named senior engineer for Gibraltar about 1761, and the next year promoted to lieutenant colonel. He was promoted to chief engineer for Gibraltar in 1770, and designed and executed a number of military works on the Rock. In 1772, his idea of a regiment of military artificers, to replace the civilian mechanics who had formerly constructed military works, came to fruition in the form of the Soldier Artificer Company, the predecessor of the Corps of Royal Sappers and Miners. Their works included the King's Bastion, which Green designed. Promoted to colonel in 1777, he served as chief engineer throughout the Great Siege of Gibraltar. During the siege, he was promoted to brigadier general, then major general. He returned to England in 1783; three years later a baronetcy was created for him. He was appointed chief engineer of Great Britain in 1786. His promotions included that to lieutenant general in 1793 and full general in 1798. Following his retirement in 1802, he settled in Plumstead, Kent
Apr 6 Pasquale Paoli a Corsican patriot and leader, the president of the Executive Council of the General Diet of the People of Corsica. Paoli designed and wrote the Constitution of the state
Apr 25 Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller a German zoologist.
Apr 25 Augustus Keppel 1st Viscount Keppel an officer of the Royal Navy during the Seven Years' War and the War of American Independence. During the final years of the latter conflict he served as First Lord of the Admiralty
May 10 John Hope (botanist) a Scottish physician and botanist. He is best known as an early supporter of Carl Linnaeus's system of classification, largely because he published very little of the research that might have made him a name in plant physiology
May 12 Louis Philippe I Duke of Orléans a French prince, a member of a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon, the dynasty then ruling France. The First Prince of the Blood after 1752, he was the most senior male at the French court after the immediate royal family. He was the father of Philippe Égalité. He greatly augmented the already huge wealth of the House of Orléans
May 14 Ludovico Manin the last Doge of Venice. He governed Venice from 9 March 1789 until 1797, when he was forced to abdicate by Napoleon Bonaparte
May 25 Samuel Ward (American statesman) a farmer, politician, Supreme Court Justice, Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and a delegate to the Continental Congress. The son of an earlier Rhode Island Governor, Richard Ward, he was well educated as he grew up in a large Newport, Rhode Island family. After marrying, he and his new wife received property in Westerly, Rhode Island from his father-in-law, and upon settling there he took up farming. Entering politics as a fairly young man, he soon took sides in the hard money/paper money controversy, favoring hard money, or specie. His primary rival over the money issue was Providence politician Stephen Hopkins, and the two men became bitter rivals, alternating as governors of the colony for several terms
May 31 Ahilyabai Holkar Template:Use Hindi.
Jul 1 Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur comte de Rochambeau a French nobleman and general who played a major role in helping America win independence during the American Revolution. During this time, he served as commander-in-chief of the French Expeditionary Force which embarked from France in order to help the American Continental Army fight against British forces
Jul 20 Joaquín Ibarra a Spanish printer who was known for several important technical developments on the work of the press, books and typography. His work was extremely anticipated
Jul 25 Bernhard Rode a Prussian artist and engraver well known for portraying historical scenes and allegorical works. He knew most of the central figures in the Berlin Enlightenment as Friedrich Nicolai and Gotthold Lessing, and the philosophical and political discussions of the Berlin Philosophs informed much of the subject matter of his artistic work. His paintings include several works depicting, in various guises, the King of Prussia Frederick the Great, who ruled the Prussia during much of Rode's lifetime. Rode was director of the Berlin Academy of the Arts from 1783 until his death in 1797
Aug 4 John Newton an English sailor, in the Royal Navy for a period, and later a captain of slave ships. He became ordained as an evangelical Anglican cleric, served Olney, Buckinghamshire for two decades, and also wrote hymns, known for Amazing Grace and Glorious Things of Thee are Spoken
Aug 6 Duke Louis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin heir to the Dukedom of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1756 to his death. He was also the father of the first Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Frederick Francis I
Aug 15 Ferdinando Bertoni an Italian composer and organist.
Aug 21 Jean-Baptiste Greuze a French painter.
Aug 29 Charles Townshend a British politician. He was born at his family's seat of Raynham Hall in Norfolk, England, the second son of Charles Townshend, 3rd Viscount Townshend, and Audrey , daughter and heiress of Edward Harrison of Ball's Park, near Hertford, a lady who rivalled her son in brilliancy of wit and frankness of expression. At the Dutch university, where he matriculated on 27 October 1745, he associated with a small knot of English youths, afterwards well known in various circles of life, among whom were Dowdeswell, Wilkes, the witty and unprincipled reformer, and Alexander Carlyle, the genial Scotsman, who devotes some of the pages of his Autobiography to chronicling their sayings and their doings
Sep 2 Ewald Friedrich von Hertzberg a Prussian statesman.
Sep 5 Jean-Étienne Montucla a French mathematician.
Sep 7 William Duesbury an important enameller and British entrepreneur, founder of the Royal Crown Derby and owner of porcelain factories at Bow, Chelsea, Derby and Longton Hall.
Sep 12 Guillaume Le Gentil a French astronomer.
Sep 16 Nicolas Desmarest a French geologist and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.
Sep 22 Joseph Duplessis a French painter, known for the clarity and immediacy of his portraits.
Sep 25 Robert Clive a British officer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. He is credited with securing India, and the wealth that followed, for the British crown. Together with Warren Hastings he was one of the key early figures in the creation of British India. He also sat as a Tory Member of Parliament in Great Britain
Sep 27 Patrick d'Arcy born in the west of Ireland. His family, who were Catholics, suffered under the penal laws. In 1739 d'Arcy was sent abroad by his parents to an uncle in Paris. He was tutored in mathematics by Jean-Baptiste Clairaut, and became a friend of Jean-Baptiste's son, Alexis-Claude Clairaut, , who was a brilliant young mathematician. d'Arcy made original contributions to dynamics. He is best known for his part in the discovery of the principle of angular momentum, in a form which was known as "the principle of areas," which he announced in 1746. See the article on areal velocity. d'Arcy also had an illustrious military career in the French army. He obtained the title of "Count" in the French nobility. He was a generous patron of Irish refugees in France. In addition to his contributions to dynamics, he performed research on artillery and on electricity. An experiment of his, reported in 1765, on visual perception is often referred to: it involved a rotating disk on which a burning coal was placed; when the disk was spun at an angular velocity exceeding seven revolutions per second, a full circle of light was perceived. d'Arcy was elected to the Academie Royale des Sciences in 1749. He died from cholera in Paris in October 1779
Oct 12 Étienne Louis Geoffroy a French entomologist and pharmacist. He was born in Paris and died in Soissons. He followed the binomial nomenclature of Carl von Linné and devoted himself mainly to beetles
Oct 17 John Wilkes an English radical, journalist, and politician.
Oct 23 Thomas Graves 1st Baron Graves a British Admiral and colonial official.
Oct 26 Johann Peter Beaulieu an Austrian military officer. He joined the Austrian army and fought against the Prussians during the Seven Years' War. A cultured man, he later battled Belgian rebels and earned promotion to general officer. During the French Revolutionary Wars he fought against the First French Republic and attained high command. In 1796, a young Napoleon Bonaparte won some of his first victories against an army led by Beaulieu. He retired and was the Proprietor of an Austrian infantry regiment until his death
Nov 8 Johann George Tromlitz a flautist, flute maker and composer.
Nov 16 Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon Duke of Penthièvre the son of Louis Alexandre de Bourbon and his wife Marie Victoire de Noailles. He was also a grandson of Louis XIV of France and his mistress, Madame de Montespan. From birth he was known as the Duke of Penthièvre. He also possessed the following titles: Prince of Lamballe ; Prince of Carignano; Duke of Rambouillet; Duke of Aumale ; Duke of Gisors; Duke of Châteauvillain; Duke of Arc-en-Barrois; Duke of Amboise; Count of Eu; Count of Guingamp. He was the father in law of Philippe Égalité
Dec 11 George Mason an American Patriot, statesman and a delegate from Virginia to the U.S. Constitutional Convention. Along with James Madison, he is called the "Father of the United States Bill of Rights." For these reasons he is considered one of the "Founding Fathers" of the United States
Dec 18 Johann Salomo Semler a German church historian, biblical commentator, and critic of ecclesiastical documents and of the history of dogmas. Sometimes known as "the father of German rationalism"
Dec 23 Ahmad Shah Bahadur born to Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah. He succeeded his father to the throne as the 15th Mughal Emperor in the year 1748 at the age of 22. When Ahmed Shah Bahadur came to power the rule of the Mughal Empire was collapsing, furthermore his administrative weaknesses eventually led to the rise of the usurping Imad-ul-Mulk