Born in 1726

Jan 5 Josef Starzer an Austrian composer and violinist of the pre-classical period.
Jan 17 Hugh Mercer a soldier and physician. He initially served with British forces during the Seven Years' War but later became a brigadier general in the Continental Army and a close friend to George Washington. Mercer died as a result of his wounds received at the Battle of Princeton and became a fallen hero and rallying symbol of the American Revolution
Jan 18 Prince Henry of Prussia (1726–1802) a Prince of Prussia. He also served as a general and statesman, and, in 1786, was suggested as a candidate for a monarch for the United States
Jan 28 Laurent Angliviel de la Beaumelle a French Protestant writer.
Feb 6 Patrick Russell (herpetologist) a Scottish surgeon and naturalist who worked in India. He studied the snakes of India and is considered the 'Father of Indian Ophiology'. Russell's viper, Daboia russelii, is named after him
Feb 15 Abraham Clark an American politician and Revolutionary War figure. He was delegate for New Jersey to the Continental Congress where he signed the Declaration of Independence and later served in the United States House of Representatives in both the Second and Third United States Congress, from March 4, 1791, until his death in 1794
Feb 16 Friedrich von der Trenck a Prussian officer, adventurer, and author.
Feb 20 William Prescott an American colonel in the Revolutionary War who commanded the rebel forces in the Battle of Bunker Hill. Prescott is known for his order to his soldiers, "Do not fire until you see the whites of their eyes", such that the rebel troops may shoot at the enemy at shorter ranges, and therefore more accurately and lethally, and so conserve their limited stocks of ammunition. It is debated whether Prescott or someone earlier coined this memorable saying
Feb 25 Princess Wilhelmina of Hesse-Kassel a Prussian princess, married to prince Henry of Prussia.
Feb 28 Vasily Chichagov an admiral in the Russian Navy and an explorer. He was the father of Pavel Chichagov, a Russian admiral during the Napoleonic Wars
Mar 8 Richard Howe 1st Earl Howe a British naval officer, notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and French Revolutionary Wars. He was the brother of William and George Howe
Mar 11 Louise d'Épinay a French writer, a saloniste and woman of fashion, known on account of her liaisons with Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who gives malicious reports of her in his Confessions. and her acquaintanceship with Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Baron d'Holbach and other French men of letters during the Enlightenment. She was also one of many women referenced in Simone de Beauvoir's Second Sex as an example of noble expansion of women's rights during the 18th century
Mar 19 José Clavijo y Fajardo Spanish publicist.
Mar 23 François Denis Tronchet a French jurist.
Apr 6 Gerard Majella C.Ss.R. was an Italian lay brother of the Congregation of the Redeemer, better known as the Redemptorists, who is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church. His intercession is sought for children, unborn children, women in childbirth, mothers, expectant mothers, motherhood, falsely accused people, good confessions, lay brothers and Muro Lucano, Italy
Apr 7 Charles Burney an English music historian, composer and musician, and father of the writers Frances Burney and Sarah Burney.
Apr 8 Lewis Morris an American landowner and developer from Morrisania, New York. He signed the U.S. Declaration of Independence as a delegate to the Continental Congress from New York
Apr 20 Joseph de Ferraris an Austrian general and cartographer.
May 20 Francis Cotes an English painter, one of the pioneers of English pastel painting, and a founding member of the Royal Academy in 1768.
Jun 3 James Hutton a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist. He originated the theory of uniformitarianism—a fundamental principle of geology—which explains the features of the Earth's crust by means of natural processes over geologic time. Hutton's work established geology as a proper science, and thus he is often referred to as the "Father of Modern Geology"
Jun 11 Infanta Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain an Infanta of Spain by birth and was later the wife of Louis, Dauphin of France, son of Louis XV of France. She died aged 20, while giving birth to a daughter who died in 1748
Jun 14 Thomas Pennant a Welsh naturalist, traveller, writer and antiquarian. He was born and lived his whole life at his family estate, Downing Hall near Whitford, Flintshire in Wales
Jun 26 Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia King of Sardinia from 1773 until his death. Although he was politically conservative, he carried out numerous administrative reforms until declaring war on revolutionary France in 1792. He was the father of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia
Jul 8 John Berkenhout an English physician, naturalist and miscellaneous writer.
Jul 10 Alexander Kokorinov a Russian architect and educator, one of the founders, the first builder, director and rector of the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Peterburg. Kokorinov has been house architect of the Razumovsky family and Ivan Shuvalov, the first President of the Academy. Kokorinov's surviving architectural legacy, once believed to be substantial, has been reduced by recent research to only two buildings, the Imperial Academy of Arts and Kirill Razumovsky palace in Saint Petersburg. The Academy was designed by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe based on an earlier proposal by Jacques-François Blondel, while Kokorinov managed the construction in its early phases
Jul 22 Hugh Drysdale a British governor of colonial Virginia. More officially, his title was Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia. He served as governor from September 1722, until his death in July 1726
Jul 30 Ignacy Jakub Massalski a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman.
Aug 2 Joseph Emin a prominent figure of the Armenian national liberation movement who travelled to various European countries and Russia in order to secure support for the liberation of Armenia from Persia and the Ottoman Empire. He married Thangoom-Khatoon in 1776, whose grave lies next to his
Aug 7 James Bowdoin an American political and intellectual leader from Boston, Massachusetts, during the American Revolution. He served in both branches of the Massachusetts General Court from the 1750s to the 1770s. Although he was initially supportive of the royal governors, he opposed British colonial policy and eventually became an influential advocate of independence. He authored a highly political report on the 1770 Boston Massacre that has been described by historian Francis Walett as one of the most influential pieces of writing that shaped public opinion in the colonies
Aug 9 Francesco Cetti an Italian Jesuit priest, zoologist and mathematician.
Aug 29 William Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal a member of the House of Hesse and Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal from 1770 until his death.
Sep 1 Johann Becker (organist) a German organist, teacher, and composer, born in Helsa-Wickenrode, near Kassel. He studied with Bach in Leipzig from about 1745 to 1748. He taught in Hartmuthsachsen, Bettenhausen, and Kassel, where in 1761 he was appointed municipal organist. In 1770 he was appointed court organist. He wrote mainly church music
Sep 2 John Howard (prison reformer) a philanthropist and the first English prison reformer.
Sep 7 François-André Danican Philidor a French composer and chess player. He contributed to the early development of the opéra comique. He was also regarded as the best chess player of his age; his book Analyse du jeu des Échecs was considered a standard chess manual for at least a century, and a well-known chess opening and a checkmate method are both named after him
Sep 21 Jovan Rajić a Serbian and Bulgarian writer, historian, traveller, and pedagogue, considered one of the greatest Serbian academics of the 18th century. He was one of the most notable representatives of Serbian Baroque literature along with Zaharije Orfelin, Pavle Julinac, Vasilije III Petrović-Njegoš, Simeon Končarević, Simeon Piščević, and others
Sep 25 Angelo Maria Bandini an Italian author and librarian born in Florence.
Sep 26 John Anderson (natural philosopher) a Scottish natural philosopher and liberal educator at the forefront of the application of science to technology in the industrial revolution, and of the education and advancement of working men and women.
Sep 29 August Nathanael Grischow * 29th. September 1726 in Berlin; † 4th. June 1760 in Saint Petersburg was a German mathematician and astronomer
Oct 6 Maria Teresa Felicitas d'Este born a princess of Modena and was by marriage the Duchess of Penthièvre. She was the mother-in-law of Philippe Égalité and thus the grandmother to the future Louis-Philippe of France
Oct 14 Charles Middleton 1st Baron Barham a British naval officer and politician.
Oct 16 Daniel Chodowiecki most famous as an etcher. He spent most of his life in Berlin, and became the director of the Berlin Academy of Art
Oct 19 Princess Louise of Denmark (1726–1756) a Danish princess, the daughter of King Christian VI of Denmark and his wife Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. Following her marriage to Ernest Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen, she became Duchess of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Nov 19 Franz Joseph I Prince of Liechtenstein the Prince of Liechtenstein from 1772 until his death.
Dec 2 Alexander Hood 1st Viscount Bridport an officer of the British Royal Navy during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars, and the brother of Admiral Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood.
Dec 24 Johann Hartmann a Danish composer. Two of his sons were composers, Johan Ernst Hartmann and August Wilhelm Hartmann. The latter's sons included Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann