Born in 1728

Jan 9 Thomas Warton an English literary historian, critic, and poet. From 1785 to 1790 he was the Poet Laureate of England. He is sometimes called Thomas Warton the younger to distinguish him from his father Thomas Warton the elder. His most famous poem remains The Pleasures of Melancholy, a representative work of the Graveyard poets
Jan 16 Niccolò Piccinni an Italian composer of symphonies, sacred music, chamber music, and opera. Although he is somewhat obscure, even to music lovers today, Piccinni was one of the most popular composers of opera—particularly the Neapolitan opera buffa—of his day
Jan 17 Johann Gottfried Müthel a German composer and noted keyboard virtuoso. Along with C.P.E. Bach, he represented the Sturm und Drang style of composition
Feb 3 Georg Christian Oeder a German-Danish botanist, medical doctor, economist and social reformer. His name is particularly associated with the initiation of the plate work Flora Danica
Feb 11 Charles Eugene Duke of Württemberg the eldest son of Duke Karl I Alexander and Princess Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis.
Feb 12 Étienne-Louis Boullée a visionary French neoclassical architect whose work greatly influenced contemporary architects.
Feb 13 John Hunter (surgeon) a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day. He was an early advocate of careful observation and scientific method in medicine. He was a teacher of, friend of, and collaborator with, Edward Jenner, the inventor of the smallpox vaccine. His wife, Anne Hunter , was a minor poet, some of whose poems were set to music by Joseph Haydn
Feb 21 Peter III of Russia Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. He was born as Karl Peter Ulrich, son of the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. The German Peter could hardly speak Russian and pursued a strongly pro-Prussian policy, which made him an unpopular leader. He was likely assassinated as a result of a conspiracy led by his German wife Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, who succeeded him to the throne as Catherine II
Feb 22 Alexander Gerard a Scottish minister, academic and philosophical writer.
Feb 25 John Wood the Younger an English architect, working principally in the city of Bath, Somerset. He was the son of the architect John Wood, the Elder. His designs were highly influential during the 18th century and the Royal Crescent is considered to be one of the best examples of Georgian Neo-Classical architecture in Britain
Feb 26 Antoine Baumé a French chemist.
Mar 18 Kyrylo Rozumovskyi a Ukrainian-born Russian Registered Cossack from the Kozelets, Kiev Regiment, Russian Empire , who served as the last Hetman of Zaporozhian Host of Left- and Right-Bank of Dnieper until 1764, from 1764 Razumovsky was the Field marshal of Russian Army.
Mar 20 Samuel-Auguste Tissot a notable 18th century Swiss physician.
Mar 22 Giacomo Insanguine an Italian composer, organist, and music educator.
Mar 22 Anton Raphael Mengs a German Bohemian painter, active in Rome, Madrid and Saxony, who became one of the precursors to Neoclassical painting.
Apr 13 Paolo Frisi an Italian mathematician and astronomer.
Apr 14 Lekain the stage name of Henri Louis Cain , a French actor.
Apr 16 Joseph Black a Scottish physician and chemist, known for his discoveries of latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide. He was Professor of Anatomy and Chemistry at the University of Glasgow for 10 years from 1756, and then Professor of Medicine and Chemistry at the University of Edinburgh from 1766, teaching and lecturing there for more than 30 years
Apr 23 Samuel Wallis an English navigator who circumnavigated the world.
May 11 Pierre Gaviniès a French violinist and composer.
May 16 Johann Andreas Stein an outstanding German maker of keyboard instruments, a central figure in the history of the piano. He was primarily responsible for the design of the so-called "Viennese" fortepiano, for which the piano music of Haydn, Mozart, and the early Beethoven was written
May 31 Jacob Vernes a Swiss theologian and Protestant pastor in Geneva, famous for his correspondence with Voltaire and Rousseau.
Jun 4 Therese of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel a German noblewoman. She was a member of the House of Welf and was princess-abbess of the Imperial Free secular Abbey in Gandersheim
Jun 25 Shah Alam II the son of the murdered Alamgir He escaped to Allahabad in December 1759 and later successfully defended the throne from the traitorous Imad-ul-Mulk, who appointed Shah Jahan III as the emperor. Later, he was nominated as the emperor by Ahmad Shah Durrani after the Third Battle of Panipat
Jul 3 Robert Adam a Scottish neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer. He was the son of William Adam , the country's foremost architect of the time, and trained under him. With his older brother John, Robert took on the family business, which included lucrative work for the Board of Ordnance, after William's death
Jul 18 Pietro Arduino an Italian botanist. His official abbreviation is Ard
Aug 15 Stanislaus Czerniewicz a Lithuanian-Polish Jesuit priest. Rector of the Jesuit college of Polotsk when the Society of Jesus was suppressed he was elected vicar general for the Jesuits in Russia in 1782
Aug 26 Johann Heinrich Lambert a Swiss mathematician, physicist, philosopher and astronomer. He is best known for proving the Irrationality of π
Aug 28 John Stark a New Hampshire native who served as a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. He became widely known as the "Hero of Bennington" for his exemplary service at the Battle of Bennington in 1777
Aug 29 Maria Anna Sophia of Saxony a daughter of King Augustus III of Poland and his wife Maria Josepha of Austria who became Electress of Bavaria.
Sep 3 Matthew Boulton an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt. In the final quarter of the 18th century, the partnership installed hundreds of Boulton & Watt steam engines, which were a great advance on the state of the art, making possible the mechanisation of factories and mills. Boulton applied modern techniques to the minting of coins, striking millions of pieces for Britain and other countries, and supplying the Royal Mint with up-to-date equipment
Sep 6 Christian Braunmann Tullin a Norwegian businessman and poet, born in Christiania. He was city manager for Christiania from 1763, and was also Chairman for the Board of Customs and Excise. He was regarded as one of Denmark-Norway's most important poetic talents by his contemporaries
Sep 18 Richard Mique a neoclassical French architect born in Lorraine. He is most remembered for his picturesque hamlet, the Hameau de la Reine — not particularly characteristic of his working style — for Marie Antoinette in the Petit Trianon gardens within the estate of Palace of Versailles
Sep 23 Carlo Allioni an Italian physician and professor of botany at the University of Turin. His most important work was Flora Pedemontana, sive enumeratio methodica stirpium indigenarum Pedemontii 1755, a study of the plant world in Piedmont, in which he listed 2813 species of plants, of which 237 were previously unknown. In 1766, he published the Manipulus Insectorum Tauriniensium
Oct 4 Charles White (physician) an English physician and a co-founder of the Manchester Royal Infirmary, along with local industrialist Joseph Bancroft. White was an able and innovative surgeon who made significant contributions in the field of obstetrics
Oct 5 Chevalier d'Eon a French diplomat, spy and soldier who fought in the Seven Years War. D'Éon had androgynous physical characteristics and natural abilities as a mimic, good features for a spy. D'Éon appeared publicly as a man and pursued masculine occupations for 49 years, although during that time d'Éon successfully infiltrated the court of Empress Elizabeth of Russia by presenting as a woman. For 33 years, from 1777, d'Éon dressed as a woman, claiming to be assigned female at birth. Doctors who examined the body after d'Éon's death discovered that d'Éon would have actually been assigned male at birth
Oct 7 Caesar Rodney an American lawyer and politician from Jones Neck in Dover Hundred, Kent County, Delaware, east of Dover. He was an officer of the Delaware militia during the French and Indian War and the American Revolution, a Continental Congressman from Delaware, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and President of Delaware during most of the American Revolution
Oct 18 Peter Frederik Suhm a Danish-Norwegian historian.
Oct 21 José Moñino 1st Count of Floridablanca a Spanish statesman. He was the reformist chief minister of King Charles III of Spain, and also served briefly under Charles He was arguably Spain's most effective statesman in the eighteenth century. In Spain, he is simply known as Conde de Floridablanca
Oct 30 Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt a Polish–Lithuanian Jesuit astronomer and mathematician. He was professor of Vilnius University for over 50 years, serving as its rector from 1780 to 1799. The Poczobutt crater on the Moon is named after him
Nov 5 Franz Xaver von Wulfen a botanist, zoologist, mineralogist, alpinist, and Jesuit priest. He is credited with discovering the flowering plants Wulfenia carinthiaca, Saxifraga moschata, and Stellaria bulbosa. In 1845 the lead molybdate mineral wulfenite was named in his honor by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger
Nov 7 James Cook a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand
Nov 10 Oliver Goldsmith best known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield , his pastoral poem The Deserted Village , and his plays The Good-Natur'd Man and She Stoops to Conquer. He also wrote An History of the Earth and Animated Nature. He is thought to have written the classic children's tale The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes, the source of the phrase "goody two-shoes"
Nov 22 Charles Frederick Grand Duke of Baden Margrave, elector and later Grand Duke of Baden from 1738 until his death.
Nov 29 Johann Gerhard König a Baltic German botanist and physician. He was born near Kreutzburg in Polish Livonia, which is now Krustpils in Latvia. He was a private pupil of Carolus Linnaeus in 1757, and lived in Denmark from 1759 to 1767. From 1773 to 1785, he worked as a naturalist for the Nawab of Arcot in India. He was in Tharangambadi with the Danish trade mission from 1773 to 1785
Dec 2 Ferdinando Galiani an Italian economist, a leading Italian figure of the Enlightenment. Friedrich Nietzsche referred to him as "a most fastidious and refined intelligence" as well as "..the most profound, sharp-sighted and perhaps also the foulest man of his century."
Dec 8 Johann Georg Ritter von Zimmermann a Swiss philosophical writer, naturalist, and physician.
Dec 9 Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi an Italian opera composer.
Dec 12 Pietro Verri an Italian philosopher, economist, historian and writer.
Dec 21 Demetrius Alekseyevich Gallitzin a Russian diplomat.