Born in 1729

Jan 2 Johann Daniel Titius a German astronomer and a professor at Wittenberg.
Jan 4 Joachim Chreptowicz a Polish-Lithuanian noble, poet, Grand Secretary of Lithuania, marshal of the Lithuanian Tribunal, Deputy and later last Grand Chancellor of Lithuania. Member of the Permanent Council, activist of the Commission of National Education, physiocrat, supporter of Targowica Confederation
Jan 10 Lazzaro Spallanzani an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and essentially animal echolocation. His research of biogenesis paved the way for the downfall of preformationism theory , though the final death blow to preformationism was dealt by Pasteur
Jan 12 Edmund Burke an Irish statesman born in Dublin; author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who, after moving to England, served for many years in the House of Commons of Great Britain as a member of the Whig party.
Jan 22 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era. His plays and theoretical writings substantially influenced the development of German literature. He is widely considered by theatre historians to be the first dramaturg
Jan 31 Pehr Löfling a Swedish botanist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus.
Feb 20 Fyodor Volkov a Russian actor and founder of the first permanent Russian theater.
Feb 23 Josiah Hornblower an English engineer and statesman in America Belleville, New Jersey. He was a delegate for New Jersey in the Continental Congress in 1785 and 1786
Feb 26 Anders Chydenius known as the leading classical liberal of Nordic history.
Mar 4 Anne d'Arpajon a French aristocrat and first lady of honour to Queens of France, Marie Leszczyńska and Marie Antoinette. She was called "Madame Etiquette" by Marie Antoinette for her insistence that no minutia of court etiquette ever be altered or disregarded
Mar 16 Countess Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen-Falkenburg-Dagsburg heiress to the barony of Broich and by marriage Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt. She was the grandmother and educator of Princess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who later became Queen consort of Prussia
Mar 24 Simon Mathurin Lantara a French landscape painter.
Apr 5 Frederick Charles Ferdinand Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg a member of the House of Guelph. he was a Danish field marshal and also the last Duke of Brunswick-Bevern.
Apr 13 Thomas Percy (bishop of Dromore) Bishop of Dromore, County Down, Ireland. Before being made bishop, he was chaplain to George III. Percy's greatest contribution is considered to be his Reliques of Ancient English Poetry , the first of the great ballad collections, which was the one work most responsible for the ballad revival in English poetry that was a significant part of the Romantic movement
Apr 18 Gaétan Vestris born in Florence and made his debut at the opera in 1749.
Apr 22 Michael Hillegas the first Treasurer of the United States.
May 2 Catherine the Great the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 9 July 1762 until her death in 1796 at the age of 67. Her reign was called Russia's golden age. She was born in Stettin, Pomerania, Prussia as Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, and came to power following a coup d'état and the assassination of her husband, Peter III, at the end of the Seven Years' War. Russia was revitalized under her reign, growing larger and stronger than ever and becoming recognized as one of the great powers of Europe
May 3 Florian Leopold Gassmann a German-speaking Bohemian opera composer of the transitional period between the baroque and classical eras. He was one of the principal composers of dramma giocoso immediately before Mozart
May 12 Michael von Melas a Transylvanian-born field marshal of Saxon descent for the Austrian Empire during the Napoleonic Wars.
May 23 Giuseppe Parini an Italian Enlightenment satirist and poet of the neoclassic period.
Jun 4 Cláudio Manuel da Costa a Brazilian poet and musician, considered to be the introducer of the Neoclassicism in Brazil. He wrote under the pen name Glauceste Satúrnio, and his most famous work is the epic poem Vila Rica, that tells the history of the homonymous city, nowadays called Ouro Preto
Jun 10 Aleksandr Bibikov a Russian statesman and military officer.
Jul 17 Pierre André de Suffren Admiral comte Pierre André de Suffren de Saint Tropez, bailli de Suffren , French admiral. He was most famous for his campaign in the Indian Ocean, in which he inconclusively contended for supremacy against the established British power there, led by Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Hughes
Aug 3 Anton Rolandsson Martin a Swedish botanist.
Aug 10 William Howe 5th Viscount Howe a British army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American War of Independence. Howe was one of three brothers who enjoyed distinguished military careers
Aug 11 Ponce Denis Écouchard Lebrun a French lyric poet.
Sep 4 Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel queen of Denmark between 1752 and 1766, second consort of king Frederick V of Denmark and Norway, mother of the prince-regent Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and herself de facto regent 1772–1784, King Christian VIII of Denmark descends from her.
Sep 4 Louis Dauphin of France (1729–1765) the only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie Leszczyńska. Son of the king, Louis was styled Fils de France. As heir apparent, he became Dauphin of France. However, he died before ascending to the throne. Three of his sons became kings of France: Louis XVI , Louis XVIII and Charles X
Sep 6 Moses Mendelssohn indebted.
Sep 25 Christian Gottlob Heyne a German classical scholar and archaeologist as well as long-time director of the Göttingen State and University Library.
Sep 27 Michael Denis an Austrian poet, bibliographer, and lepidopterist.
Oct 1 Anton Cajetan Adlgasser a German organist and composer at Salzburg Cathedral and at court, and composed a good deal of liturgical music as well as oratorios and orchestral and keyboard works.
Oct 16 Pierre van Maldere a violinist and composer from the Southern Low Countries.
Oct 17 Pierre-Alexandre Monsigny a French composer and a member of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts.
Oct 22 Johann Reinhold Forster a Reformed pastor and naturalist of partially Scottish descent who made contributions to the early ornithology of Europe and North America. He is best known as the naturalist on James Cook's second Pacific voyage, where he was accompanied by his son Georg Forster. These expeditions promoted the career of Johann Reinhold Forster and the findings became the bedrock of colonial professionalism and helped set the stage for the future development of anthropology and ethnology. They also laid the framework for general concern about the impact that alteration of the physical environment for European economic expansion would have on exotic societies
Nov 12 Louis Antoine de Bougainville a French admiral and explorer. A contemporary of James Cook, he took part in the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War against Britain. He later gained fame for his expeditions, the first recorded settlement on the Falkland Islands and his voyages into the Pacific Ocean
Nov 17 Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain an Infanta of Spain and the youngest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese. She was the wife of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia whom she married in 1750. She was the mother of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia
Nov 21 Josiah Bartlett an American physician and statesman, delegate to the Continental Congress for New Hampshire and signatory of the Declaration of Independence. He was later Chief Justice of the New Hampshire Superior Court of Judicature and Governor of the state
Nov 24 Charles Hector comte d'Estaing a French general, and admiral. He began his service as a soldier in the War of the Austrian Succession, briefly spending time as a prisoner of war of the British during the Seven Years' War. Naval exploits during the latter war prompted him to change branches of service, and he transferred to the French Navy
Nov 30 Samuel Seabury (bishop) the first American Episcopal bishop, the second Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, USA, and the first Bishop of Connecticut. He had been a leading Loyalist in New York City during the American Revolution
Dec 1 Giuseppe Sarti an Italian opera composer.
Dec 3 Antonio Soler a Spanish composer whose works span the late Baroque and early Classical music eras. He is best known for his keyboard sonatas, an important contribution to the harpsichord, fortepiano and organ repertoire
Dec 20 František Xaver Pokorný a Czech Classical era composer and violinist.
Dec 30 Richard François Philippe Brunck a French classical scholar.
Dec 31 Johann Gottlieb Georgi a German botanist, naturalist and geographer.