Died in 1731

Jan 6 Étienne François Geoffroy a French physician and chemist, best known for his 1718 affinity tables. He first contemplated a career as an apothecary, but then decided to practice medicine. He is sometimes known as Geoffroy the Elder
Jan 20 Antonio Farnese Duke of Parma the eighth and final Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza. He married, in 1727, Enrichetta d'Este of Modena with the intention of begetting an heir; the marriage, however, was childless, leading to the succession of Charles of Spain–whose mother, Elisabeth Farnese, was Antonio's niece–to the ducal throne
Jan 21 Thomas Hollis (1659–1731) a wealthy English merchant and benefactor of Harvard University. In 1721, he established the Hollis Chair of Divinity at Harvard, with a salary of £80 per year. In 1726, he also endowed the Hollis Chair of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy with the same amount. The town of Holliston, Massachusetts is named for him
Jan 27 Bartolomeo Cristofori an Italian maker of musical instruments, generally regarded as the inventor of the piano.
Feb 15 Mary of Jesus de León y Delgado a Spanish Dominican nun, mystic and visionary, known popularly as "La Siervita". She lived a life which was austere and simple, and many miracles were attributed to her, as well as levitation, ecstasy, bilocation, the stigmata, clairvoyance and healing, among others
Feb 20 Antonio I Prince of Monaco the Prince of Monaco from 1701 to 1731. He was the elder son of Louis I, Prince of Monaco and Catherine Charlotte de Gramont
Feb 22 Frederik Ruysch a Dutch botanist and anatomist, remembered for his developments in anatomical preservation and the creation of dioramas or scenes incorporating human parts. Ruysch came to recognition with his proof of valves in the lymphatic system, the Vomeronasal organ in snakes, and arteria centralis oculi
Mar 5 Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi born in Damascus in 1641 into a family of Islamic scholarship. His father, Isma'il Abd al-Ghani, was a jurist in the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam and a contributor to Arabic literature. He was orphaned at an early age. Abd al-Ghani did not trace his descent to the city of as some laymen think, hence his surname Nabulsi has nothing to deal with the city of
Mar 8 Ferdinand Brokoff a sculptor and carver of the Baroque era.
Apr 21 Maurice Wilhelm Duke of Saxe-Merseburg a duke of Saxe-Merseburg and member of the House of Wettin.
Apr 24 Daniel Defoe an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer and spy, now most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe. Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest proponents of the novel, as he helped to popularise the form in Britain and with others such as Samuel Richardson, is among the founders of the English novel. A prolific and versatile writer, he wrote more than five hundred books, pamphlets and journals on various topics. He was also a pioneer of economic journalism
Apr 28 Jan Stanisław Jabłonowski a Polish political writer who was a maternal uncle of Stanisław Leszczyński, under whom he served as Crown Chancellor in 1706-09. He also held the positions of Crown standard-holder from 1687, voivode of Volhynia since 1693, and also voivode of Ruthenia from 1697
May 1 Johann Ludwig Bach a composer and violinist.
May 30 Duchess Violante Beatrice of Bavaria Grand Princess of Tuscany as the wife of Grand Prince Ferdinando of Tuscany and Governor of Siena from 1717 until her death. Born a Duchess of Bavaria, the youngest child of Elector Ferdinand Maria, she married the heir to the Tuscan throne, Ferdinando de' Medici, in 1689. Violante Beatrice loved him but Ferdinando did not return her affection, declaring her too ugly and too dull. Her brother-in-law, Prince Gian Gastone, befriended her out of sympathy, a friendship that lasted until Violante Beatrice's demise
Jun 7 William Aikman (painter) a Scottish portrait-painter.
Sep 7 Eudoxia Lopukhina the first wife of Peter I of Russia. They married in 1689 but divorced in 1698. She is the mother of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich and the paternal grandmother of Peter II of Russia
Sep 17 Gustav Duke of Zweibrücken the Count Palatine of Kleeburg from 1701 until 1731 and the Duke of Zweibrücken from 1718 until 1731. His titles included: 5th Duke of Stegeborg , Pfalzgraf zur Rhein, and Herzog von Bayern
Oct 11 John Craig (mathematician) a Scottish mathematician and theologian.
Nov 23 Crown Prince Friedrich Ludwig heir to the duchy of Württemberg.
Nov 27 Innocent of Irkutsk a missionary to Siberia and the first bishop of Irkutsk in Russia.
Dec 20 Chhatrasal a medieval Indian warrior from Bundela Rajput clan, who fought against the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, and established his own kingdom in Bundelkhand, becoming a Maharaja of Panna.
Dec 25 Caspar Commelijn a Dutch botanist.
Dec 26 Antoine Houdar de la Motte a French author.
Dec 29 Brook Taylor best known for Taylor's theorem and the Taylor series.
Dec 29 Louise Hippolyte Princess of Monaco the only Sovereign Princess of Monaco. She is the ancestor of the current reigning princely family of Monaco