Born in 1733

Jan 8 Anton von Maron an Austrian painter, active in Rome.
Jan 12 Antoine-Marin Lemierre a French dramatist and poet.
Jan 17 Thomas Linley the elder born in Badminton, Gloucestershire, and studied music in Bath, where he settled as a singing-master and conductor of the concerts.
Jan 18 Caspar Friedrich Wolff a German physiologist and one of the founders of embryology.
Jan 22 Philip Carteret a British naval officer and explorer who participated in two of the Royal Navy's circumnavigation expeditions in 1764-66 and 1766-69.
Feb 19 Daniel Solander a Swedish naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus. Solander was the first university educated scientist to set foot on Australian soil
Mar 5 Vincenzo Galeotti an Italian and Danish dancer, choreographer and ballet master, who was influential as the director of the Royal Danish Ballet from 1775 until his death.
Mar 13 Johann Zoffany a German neoclassical painter, active mainly in England. His works appear in many prominent British National galleries such as the National Gallery, London, the Tate Gallery and in the Royal Collection
Mar 17 Carsten Niebuhr renowned for his participation in the 1761 Danish Arabia Expedition.
Mar 18 Christoph Friedrich Nicolai a German writer and bookseller.
Mar 24 Joseph Priestley an 18th-century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and Liberal political theorist who published over 150 works. He is usually credited with the discovery of oxygen, having isolated it in its gaseous state, although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Antoine Lavoisier also have a claim to the discovery
Apr 2 Giacomo Tritto an Italian composer, known primarily for his 54 operas. He was born in Altamura, and studied in Naples; among his teachers were Nicola Fago, Girolamo Abos, and Pasquale Cafaro. Amongst his pupils were the young Vincenzo Bellini around 1821, plus Ferdinando Orlandi. He died in Naples
Apr 27 Joseph Gottlieb Kölreuter a German botanist.
May 4 Jean-Charles de Borda a French mathematician, physicist, political scientist, and sailor.
May 11 Princess Victoire of France the seventh child and fifth daughter of King Louis XV of France and his Queen consort Maria Leszczyńska. As the daughter of the king, she was a Fille de France
May 22 Hubert Robert a French painter, noted for his landscape paintings and picturesque depictions of ruins.
May 29 Giovanni Battista Caprara an Italian statesman and cardinal and archbishop of Milan from 1802 to 1810. Legate of Pius VII in France, he implemented the Concordat of 1801
Jun 12 Maruyama Ōkyo a Japanese artist active in the late 18th century. He moved to Kyoto, during which he studied artworks from Chinese, Japanese and Western sources. A personal style of Western naturalism mixed with Eastern decorative design emerged, and Ōkyo founded the Maruyama school of painting. Although many of his fellow artists criticized his work as too slavishly devoted to natural representation, it proved a success with laymen
Jun 12 Alessandro Longhi a Venetian portrait painter and printmaker in etching. He is known best for his oil portraits of Venetian nobles of state. His father was the famed genre painter Pietro Longhi. He trained under his father and Giuseppe Nogari. Like Sebastiano Bombelli in the prior century, Alessandro Longhi is noted for his zealous full-length depictions of robes and emblems of office. His "tumultuous and unusual technique shows first-hand knowledge of Rembrandt's etchings", according to Olimpia Theodoli
Jun 20 Betty Washington Lewis the younger sister of George Washington and the only sister to live to adulthood. She was the first daughter of Augustine Washington and Mary Ball Washington. She is considered a "founding mother" of America
Jul 13 Charles of Saxony Duke of Courland a German prince from the House of Wettin and Duke of Courland.
Jul 22 Mikhail Shcherbatov a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov. His view of human nature and social progress is kindred to Swift's pessimism. He was known as a statesman, historian, writer and philosopher, and was one of the most visible representatives of the nascent Russian conservatism during the second half of the 18th century
Jul 27 Jeremiah Dixon best known for his work with Charles Mason, from 1763 to 1767, in determining what was later called the Mason-Dixon line.
Aug 14 Jean-François Ducis a French dramatist and adapter of Shakespeare.
Aug 17 François Baron de Tott an aristocrat and a French military officer of Hungarian origin. Born on August 17, 1733 in Chamigny, a village in northern France, the descendant of a Hungarian nobleman, who had emigrated to the Ottoman Empire and then moved on to France with the cavalry of Count Miklós Bercsényi, and was later raised to the rank of baron
Sep 5 Christoph Martin Wieland a German poet and writer.
Sep 18 George Read (U.S. statesman) an American lawyer and politician from New Castle in New Castle County, Delaware. He was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a Continental Congressman from Delaware, a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, President of Delaware, and a member of the Federalist Party, who served as U.S. Senator from Delaware and Chief Justice of Delaware
Oct 14 François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix Count of Clerfayt a Walloon, joined the army of the Habsburg Monarchy and soon fought in the Seven Years' War. Later in his military career, he led Austrian troops in the war against Ottoman Turkey. During the French Revolutionary Wars he saw extensive fighting and rose to the rank of Field Marshal
Oct 20 Sugita Genpaku a Japanese scholar known for his translation of Kaitai Shinsho.
Oct 20 Adam Naruszewicz a Polish nobleman from an impoverished aristocratic family, poet, historian, dramatist, translator, publicist, Jesuit and titular Bishop of Smolensk and bishop of Łuck.
Oct 28 Franz Ignaz von Beecke a classical music composer born in Wimpfen am Neckar, Germany.
Oct 29 Gottfried van Swieten a diplomat, librarian, and government official who served the Austrian Empire during the 18th century. He was an enthusiastic amateur musician and is best remembered today as the patron of several great composers of the Classical era, including Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven
Nov 5 Mikhail Kheraskov regarded as the most important Russian poet by Catherine the Great and her contemporaries.
Nov 15 Antoine Gouan a French naturalist who was a native of Montpellier. Gouan was a pioneer of Linnaean taxonomy in France
Nov 19 Joseph von Quarin an Austrian physician born in Vienna.
Dec 7 Antoine-Jean-Marie Thévenard a French politician and vice admiral. He served in the French ruling regimes of Louis XVI, those of the Revolution, Napoleon I and Louis XVIII, and is buried at the Panthéon de Paris. His son Antoine-René Thévenard, capitaine de vaisseau, was killed at the Battle of Aboukir whilst commanding the 74-gun Aquilon
Dec 12 Christian Friedrich Schwan a German publisher and bookseller.
Dec 17 Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target a French lawyer and politician.
Dec 23 Jean Baptiste Antoine Auget de Montyon a French philanthropist, born in Paris.